BBA 2nd Sem. Indian Economy top 5 Question For Exam

BBA 2nd Sem. Indian Economy top 5 Question For Exam :- 

 

Q. 1. Give an estimate of water resources in India. Also explain the problems of water resources.

Or

Write an essay on water resources in India.

Ans. Water Resources in India : Water is called life to living being, no activity is possible on the earth without water. Water is essential f08 agriculture and country’s overall development. Therefore, optimum development and efficient utilisation of water is of great significance. This has been lately recognised by the government also. Thus there is stress on integrated and multi-disciplinary approach to planning, formulation and implementations of projects. Presently the highest priority has been accorded to drinking water followed by irrigation, hydro power and industrial uses. However, in terms of utilisation, irrigation and livestock account for 93% of the water utilisation and domestic and industrial uses account for the remaining 7%. India is one of the wettest countries in the world .B.S. Nag and G.N. Kathpatia have estimated India’s water resources. It was the first attempt to estimate water resources in India for the year 1974 and for the year 2025. These estimates are presented in the following table :

Annual Water Resources of India, 1974 and 2025

Particulars   (Million hectare metres)
Year
1974 2025
Total Precipitation 400 400
(i) Immediate evaporation 70 70
(ii) Run-off to surface water bodies 115 115
(iii) Percolation into soil 215 215
Water Utilisation 38 105
(i) of which ground water contribute 13 35
(ii) Surface flows 25 70

This table reveals that annual rainfall is estimated at 400 million hectare metres. Water utilisation was 38 million hectare metres in 1974. It is expected to rise to 105 million hectare metres by the year 2025. It is estimated that 92% of water resources are used for irrigation and the remaining 8% for domestic and industrial uses.

Scientists have attempted to estimate the maximum degree of exploitation of the annual precipitation. These estimates vary between 86 million hectare metres to 105 million hectare meters. Scientists estimated that the use of water supply will not be adequate to meet the water by the year 1995. Acute water shortages experienced by Tamilnadu and Karnataka during recent years have proved these estimate to be true.

Government Policy and Problems of Water Resources

Government policy on water resources since 1950-51 consisted of the construction 01′ huge dams and reservoirs, distribution canals, etc. All these were known as multi-purpose projects and were designed to generate electric power, provide irrigation water to agriculture and control floods, In 1962, the government encouraged intensive utilisation of ground water resources in the form of tube well, irrigation and surface walls.

The national water policy adopted in April 2002 provides the framework within which water resource planning should be done. The policy has stressed that many of the country’s rivers have abundant water and if properly harnessed can meet adequately the needs of the people in the basin and still have some water left that can be used elsewhere. Therefore, there is some scope for transferring water from certain basins to water short areas. This implies that in future water is to be considered as a national resource. People of a particular state or a region cannot be permitted to have claim over the entire water supply in their river basin. The national water policy envisages that each state shall formulate its own state water policy backed by an operational action plan. The ministry of water resources has formulated on action plan for implementation of the national water policy.

 

Main Problems of Water Resources

1. Water Pollution : A great problem in the development of water resources in India is water pollution. Rivers are increasingly getting polluted because the urban and industrial wastes are dumped into them.

2. Reliance on Large Dams : Our planners have committed their reliance on large dams as a means of raising agricultural production. These dams cost very high and bring much less benefits than anticipated and have caused positive harm to people and environment. Thus, these projects waste crore of rupees with no practical benefits.

3. Ignorance of Ponds and Tanks : Ponds and tanks have been the most common form of irrigation in many parts of the country. But these have been ignored by our planners. Through poor maintenance, a large number of ponds and tanks are allowed to fall disuse. If properly managed tanks are important for good water management and are substitutes to canal irrigation. They help to reduce floods, recharge wells and provide drainage in high rainfall periods.

4. Ignorance of Ground Water Resources : In India, planners did not pay due attention to the development of ground water resources. There is no accurate survey of ground water resources in the country. According to an estimate, these resources would be about 3 700 million hectares metres. The annual exploitable potential is estimated at 45 million hectares metres but only about 13 million hectare metres are being exploited at present.

Q. 2. Describe the importance of human resource (manpower).

Or

“Population is both an asset and a liability for a nation.” Explain.

Ans. Importance of Human Resources : Human resources are defined as population of a country. It is the most important factor for the economic development of a country. Though physical and natural resources have an important role for the economic development but real economic development of a country depends upon the size, ability and quality of its population.

“A nation’s true wealth is not in its land and water, not in its forests and mines, not in its flocks and hards, not in its dollars but in its wealthy, happy, men, women and children.”

For the real complete and balanced economic growth of a country, available manpower/human resources must be used in a planned way to their maximum capacity.

Is Population both an Asset and a Liability for a Nation : Population is both an asset and a liability for a nation. The reasons are :

Population as an Asset

population is an asset because the economic, physical and social developmant of a nation depends upon the size, ability and capacity of its population

1. Advantage of Division of Labour and Specialisation : A country can adopt division of labour and specialisation only if it fias sufficient stock of manpower, These techniques help in the improver-nent-‘ and deveiopment ot production process.

2. Facilities Research and Development : Research and development facilities are developed, used and exploited by manpower only. It is the manpower only which develops existing capacity and technique and explores the new one.

3. Increase in Demand and Wider Market : Population is not only a means but also an end. people of the nation are ultimate consumers also. Goods and services produced in the country are consumed mainly by its people. Thus population of the country creates demand and dete; mines the size of market.

4. Facilitates Safety and Administration of Nation : Every country neede manpower for maintaining law and order and for internal and external safety.

5. Active Means of Production : Labour is the only active factor of production. All other factors are useless without latioer. Labour makes them productive labour is avar-ßble only as population and thus population in an asset for the nation.

6. Exploitation of Nafrrral Resources : Natural resources of the nation are discovered, developed and exploited by manpower only. Thus population is an asset for the nation population puts these resources to use.

Population as a Liability

Population is a liability because the nation has to provide food, clothing, accommodation, education, health and many other facilities for its population.

1. Employment Opportunities : Every person of the country, nation has a right to get work according to his taste and ability. It is a liability of every nation to provide sufficient-employment opportunities to its people. If there is a problem of unemployment or under-employment in the country, it may create social and economic problems.

2. Education Facilities : It is a liability of every nation to provide sufficient facilities of education and training to its people.

3. Transportation and Communication Facilities : Every nation has to provide sufficient facilities of transportation and communication to its people. Lack of these facilities may be a hindrance in the economic development of nation.

4. Peace and Safety : nation has to develop an atmosphere in which the people may live with peace and feel safe.

5. Supply of Food Grains : There are three primary needs of a man-food cloth and shelter. Therefore, first liability of a nation is to provide sufficient food for its people. If a nation fails to provide sufficient food, it may create serious danger before the nation.

6. Accommodation : It is the most important liability of a nation is to provide accommodation to its people. If there is a shortage of houses in ghe country, its people have to face great difficulties.

7. Medical and Health Facilities : All the people of the nation must get proper and adequate medical and health facilities, so that they may lead a happy and healthy life. It entrusts a great liability on the nation to provide proper and adequate medical facilities to Its people.

Q. 3. What do you mean by ‘Population explosion’? What are the causes of the rapid growth of population? How does it affects economic development?

Ans. India and some other countries are now passing through the phase of over population. This Situation has arisen because economic development in these countries has failed to maintain pace with population growth. The rapid growth of population cause poverty and proves to be a barrier to development. These countries should take serious steps of their population growth. Birth control is necessary for their economic development.

Population Explosion

According to Neo-Mathusians, population problem is an inversible result of the reproductive behaviour of man. According to the theory of demographic transition every country passes through three stages of demographic transition. These stages are :  In the First Stage : In the first stage, both birth and death rate are high. Hence the population remains more or less stable. Even if there is some increase in the population because birth rate is somewhat higher than death rate, it does not pose any serious problem. Generally in backward economics where agriculture is the main occupation of the people, per capita incomes are low. Mass of population ili these countries is deprived of even the basic necessities of life, live on inadequate and unbalanced diet, their housing conditions are appealing and in the absence of opportunities for education, their outlook towards life becomes unscientific and irrational.

Under these circumstances when medical facilities are limited the morality rate is bound to be high. Lack of education, superstitions and such other social evils result is high birth rate. In an agrarian economy, certain economy factors also include people to have more children.

“TheSe beliefs and customs are reinforce by the economic advantages to a peasant family of large number of births. The burden of child care rests primarily on the women in a peasant society and the cost of educating children are minimal because of the level of education given. Children contribute at an early age to agrarian production and are a traditional source of security in the old age of parents.” —Coale & Hoover

Furthermore, the people are generally indifferent to family planning : they have neither the desire nor necessary information to restrict the size of family. Hence birth rate remains high. In the first stage of. demographic transition high birth rate is matched by an equally high death rate and thus population remains stable over a long period.

In the Second Stage : In the second stage demographic transition is characterised by rapid growth of population because despite substantial reduction in the mortality rate there is no corresponding decline in the birth rate.

With the beginning of the process of development, the living standards of the people improve the education expands, medical and health facilities, increase and governments make special efforts to check small pox, malaria, cholera, plague etc. These developments generally bring down the death rate. But as long as society remains primarily agrarian and the education remains confined to a narrow section of the society, attitude of the people towards the -size of family does not change radically and the birth rate remains high. In this situation population increases at an alarming rate. In the second stage of demographic transition, the birth rate generally stays around 35 to 40 per thousand, whereas the death rate comes down to roughly 15 per thousand. Consequently, population increases at an annual rate of about 2.0 per cent or more.

In the Third Stage : In the third stage of demographic transition the birth rate declines significantly and thus the rate of population growth remains low. A country can hope to overcome the problem of population explosion if the process of industrialisation accompanied by urbanisation is fast and education becomes widespread. Only in thissituation birth rate shows a tendency to fall. Their experiences of urban life help them in recognising the merits of small family. In a country where economy has not grown adequately for a long time and a sizeable section of population has remained below the poverty line, this is really a grave situation. Economists call it population explosion.

Causes of Rapid Growth of Population : There are only three possible causes of an increase in the population of country :

(i) a high birth rate, (ii) a relatively lower death rate and (iii) to immigration, first two are main causes. The reason why the birth rate continues to be high are :

Causes of the decline in the morality rate.
Causes of the high birth rate are :
(a) Economic factor, (b) Social factor.

Causes of the Decline in the Mortality Rate

(i) Elimination of Famines : Recurrence of famines in India under the British was a major cause of high mortality rate. Since independence the situation has considerably improved. The famines since independence have not occurred on a large scale and the problems created by droughts have been ment to such an extent that only stay cases starvation death have been reported. This factor in all probability is the most important single factor bringing down the mortality rate.

(ii) Control of Epidemics and Decline in the Incidence of Malaria and Tuberculosis : Cholera and small pox were the two major causes of epidemic before independence. Now small pox is completel eradicated and cholera is very much under control. Consequently, the morality rate has registered some decline, In the late 1930s death rate was around 31 per thousand people of Malaria but a substantial share of the decline in mortality since World War Second must be attributed to malaria control which save million of lives. Though there has been some decline in the incidence of tuberculosis (T.B.), it still remains a major killer in India.

Causes of the High Birth Rate : In India during the last five decades because a number of economic and social factors continue to favour high fertility.

Economic Factors

1. Predominance Agriculture : In India, where techniques of production in agriculture are generally primitive for harvesting, weeding and sowing times covering over half year are the peaks of production activity corresponding to acute need of labour, then child labour is required in agriculture because they have to pay children less money then adults and the children are source of income for their family.

2. Slow Urbanisation Process and Predominance of Villages : Due to staggering industrialisation the process of urbanisation has been slow in India and it failed to generate social forces which usually bring down the birth rate.

3. Poverty : Poverty in undeh- developed countries usually results in high fertility. According to Mahmood Madani, “People are not poor because they have large families. Quite the contrary, they have large families because they are poor.” At a lower income level of the family the benefits of having an additional child to the family generally exceed the cost of his upbringing. Benefits accuring to the family from a child take the form of expected services, income and social security provided by the child.

Social Factors

1. Near Universality of Marriage : Marriage is both a religious and a social necessity in India. The custom of arranged marriages under which parents feel that marrying daughter is social obligation results in near universality of marriage.

2. Lower Age of the Time of Marriage : The relatively lower age at the time of marriage in the. country is also believed to be responsible for high fertility. N.C. Das on the basis of an empirical study has claimed that women marrying between 20 to 24 have the same fertility, as those marrying before the age of 20. Only when Il’,e marriage age reaches 25 or over, some reduction in fertility occurs. in India, since the average age of women at marriage is still below 25 years, the fertility is bound to

3. Religious and social Superstitions : Most Indians on account of their religious and social superstitions, desire to have cniidren having no regard for their economic conditions. Hindus in any case must have a son, becausce according to their religious certain rites can be performed only by him
and none else. These irrational act-itedes based on wrong social and religious norms iaid down by Manu and others get reflect” in the ideology in peasant cultures.

4. Joint Family System : In India, where social relations in the country side are still by and large pre capitalist, joint family system is very much common as it, conforms to tne concrete reality of the time. in cities however, the process of its disintegracion has started the joint farnlly system induces young couples to have children, thcugh they may not be in a position to support them. In a joint family their economic burcLn is carried by the earning members.

5. Lack of Education : Illiteracy is wideqnread ili India, female literacy we now have in this country is largely concentrated in arcas and the incidence of female illiteracy is the highest in large North Indian state, viz., U.P., Bihar, Rajasthan and M.P. Most economists are convinced the education alone can change the attitudes ofthe people towards family, marriage and birth of a child.

Fopulation and Economic Development

The relationship between population and economic development is very complex. In India, the overwhelming view is that the country’s existing population is not an asset considering the available utilisable resources and the level of technological progr’ess. Further growth in population will result in an additional burden on the economy in the sense that it will make larger demand on resources for unproductive consumption leaving little for productive purposes.

Hence, population in India is the major constraint on its economic development. Taking partial view of the realily, its view looks so much convincing that one has a tendency to ignore the role of other factors in India’s underdevelopment. We shall show that the causal relationship between rapid population growth and underdevelopment believed to be existing in this country is rather teneurs. Therefore, it is wrong to believe that population control is a panacea of all the ills. Population control at best can facilitate economic development but it cannot put this country on the path of rapid economic growth.

Most people who argue that population growth is a major obstacle to development assume that rapidly growing population would necessarily arrest development by lowering down the land-man and capital-labour ratios. In an otherwise retrogressive economy, because such a thing invariably happens a casual relationship is assumed tc be existing befween popul-ation growth and underdevelopment and thus other factors aro ignored. In this population issue, we generally come acrosc the following arguments :

1. Population Growth and the Decline Land-man Ratio : It is asserted that the pressure of population on land has been steadily increasing and with it land-man ratio is becoming increasingly adverse. This increase in density of population may lock alarming if one makes the assumption that over the years neither the utilisable resources have increased nor the technological knowledge has grown, According to some economist, due to rapid growth of population over the years, it pressures on agricultural land has increased and cultivable land per capita has declined.

2. Population Growth and Capital Formation : The other argument which finds extensive support in academic as well as non-academic circles is that råpidly growing population makes increasing demands on resources for unproductive purpose and thus hinders capital accumulation. In India, where rate of population growth continues to be high, much development would not materialistic. High birth rate in a country does not erode the saving potential of the country. secondly, for the poor people an additional child is not a liability, as they hope to derive greater benefit from him in time of income, services and security than the cost they would be required to incure on his upbringing.

Q.4. What are the remedies for population explosion?

Ans. Remedies for Population Explosion : To deal with the present population problem, broadly speaking three field measures would be requiréd :

A. Economic measures.

B. Social measures,

C. The family planning programme,

A. Economic Measures : Economic measures can ensure a permanent solution to the problem. But the implementation of economic measures is not an easy task, it takes rather a long time to carry out economics programmes of the various measures which are being suggested by the economists the following are the more important ones :

1. Expansion of the Industrial Sector : industrial workers are aware of the difficulties in getting employment and are interested in restricting the size of their family. Moreover, higher productivity in the industrial sector makes industrial workers conscious of their standard of living, they realise that in order to raise their standard of living they must restrict the size of their family. Eut the process of industrialisation in this country has been slow during last decades of economic planning and is at present arrested by the small size of the market in the country and recessionary conditions prevailing world over. Therefore, United States undertakes radical measure to create conditions for rapid industrialisation one should not expect quick result in this sector.

2. Creation of Employment Opportunities in Urban Areas : Urbanisation is co-nominant of industrialisation, but besides industrial development there can be many other factors which contribute to the growth of urban centres. In order to induce people to migrate from the countryside to cities the government will have to create job opportunities in these places. If this programmes is carried out in an effective manner and the migration of rural population to urban areas starts in a big way, it may prove to be a powerful check on the growth of population. The housing problem and the cost of upbringing of children in urban areas, are the two factors which usually deter people from having big families. However in India, in the contact of the need to lower down the rate of population growth it does not seem a feasible proportion to adopt conscious policies to promote urbanisation.

3. Equitable Distribution of Income and Removal of Poverty : Poor people have virtually no interest in limiting the size of the family. They have little stakes in their lives and are thus unconcerned about their families, while living in poverty conditions, they often lose human quantities and at times get alienated even from themselves. Once the poor people start getting basic amenities of life, they will have no economic compulsion to have more children and their attitudes towards the size of their families will undergo a change. In this changed situation not only will they become conscious of the number of the children they should have but will also undertake every possible effort to make the life of their children as comfortable as they can.

B. Social Measures : Population explosion is as much a social problem as it is an economic problem. Many of its causes are deep-rooted in the social life of the country. Illiteracy, superstitions, orthodoxy and deplorable condition of the women are social maladies and they all have contributed to population explosion in this country. In order to bring down the birth rate, which is still very high all these social evils must be removed.

1. Education: Contribution ofeducation in bringing down the birth rate is significant. Education often changes the attitude ofa person towards family marriage and the number of children he should have. Most educated people prefer to have small family. Education by making a frontal attack on orthodoxy and superstitions induces people to practise family planning.There is an added reason why education proves to be an effective instrument of population control when education is widespread, both boys and girls are sent to school and colleges. This autonnatically delay marriages and thus reduces reproductive span of women.

2. Improving the Status of Women : Although the constitution of India has guaranteed equality between ruen and women there is a discrimination in social life and the position of women is inferior to that of nnen both socially and economically. This is perhaps the most important reason Why education is less among women and in its absence, they are quite indifferent to family planning Moreover the discrimination between men and women in the society leads to the growth of a family size. For many people a son enhances the prestige of family, performs useful religious rites and provides security in old age.

3. Raising the Minimum Age of Marriage : Since fertility depends to a great extent on the age of women at the time of marriage, it is necessary that every possible social, legal and educative measure should be undertaken to raise it. In India, due to various factors including backward social consciousness and lack of education, average age marriage has been very low. Even under the Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1903, the minimum age was 18 years for men and 15 years for Women. 1978, this Child Marriage Restraint Act was amended to raise the minimum age of marriage to 21 years for men and 18 years for women with a view to restrict the rate of population growth.

C. The Family Planning Programme : Importance of the family planning programme as a device to control population explosion is universally recognised, so much so that even the decision-makers in communist countries have shed their bias against it and have become recepativet to the idea of small family norms. In China, for example, the state has approved of one-child norm and has succeeded in bringing down the birth rate to 16 per thousand as against 26 per thousand in India. The factor which has contributed most to China’s succeés on this front is widespread use contraception. Now about 85% of married women of child-bearing age use contraceptive in China as against 41% in India. It is thus0. clear that in India with the exception of the States of Kerale Tamilnadu and Goa the masses are not presently aware of the need of family planning.

The following aspects of the family planning program -in this country observe particular mention :

1. Public Information Programme : Under public information programme, couples in the reproductive age are explained the usefulness of family planning. This is considered necessary raising the level of consciousness of the people without which they will not accept any family planning programme. Hence the government has decided to use all media of publicity, including cinema, radio, television, posters and newspapers to publicize the importance of family planning Once the idea of fanhily planning catches up the imagination ofthe people, they will themselves voluntarily start practising it.

2. Incentives and Disincentives : The government has introduced various schemes under which incentive are being given to those who accept family planning. The system of cash prizes given some inducement to the people to go in for sterilisation. Since family planning in this country completely voluntary corecive methods have been generally avoided. During the emergency some excesses were committed and forcible sterilisation were done. This caused widespread resentment among the people and there was a set back to voluntary family planning. Under the existing situation of small cash prices fail to provide incentive to people to accept family planning, the government can take a policy decision that preference for employment will be given to the people who accept small family norms.

3. Family Planning Centres : Establishment of family planning centres is an integral part of any family planning programme. Some attention has been given to this aspect of the programme in India These centres provide various clinical facilities needed for family planning. In addition to these clinical centres a large number of contraceptive distribution centres should also be located in both urban and rural areas.  4. Research : Research in the field of demography, communication action reproductive biology and fertility control has to be given a l) ißll priority in any family planning programmc, Gcncrally this aspect is ignored in unclerdevelopecl countries and undue rcljancc is placed on family planning devices more suitable for developed countries, The Government of India, however realises the importance of research to obtain ruaximunl results within the constraint” of resources allocated to the fanlily planning programme.

Q. 5. Describe the meaning, causes, types of unemployment in India. Also give your suggestions to remove the problem of unemployment.

Ans. Most of the unemployment in India is definitely structural this problem has created a challenge to our country and planners because it implies the under utilisation of valuable human resources of the country. The number of people coming to the labour market in search of jobs had also increased rapidly whereas employment opportunities did not increase most of the time corresponding due to slow economic growth. Hence there has been an increase in the volume of unemployment from one plan period to another.

Concept and Meaning of Unemployment : The three concepts of unemployment developed by the NSSO are :

1. Usual Status Unemployment : The usual status unemploy ment rate to a person rate and indicates chronic unemployment because all those who are found “usually” unemployed in the reference year are counted as unemployed.

2. The Current Weekly Status Unemployment : A person having worked for an hour or more on any one or more days during the reference period gets the employed status. The current weekly status unemployment rate, like the usual status unemployment rate, is also a person rate.

3. The Current Daily Status Unemployment : A person who works for one hour but less them four hours is considered having worked for half a day. If he works for four hours or more during a day, he is considered as employed for the whole day. The current daily status unemployment rate and is time rate.

When a person is willing to do a job and he is capable of doing of but does not find the job, he is said to be unemployed. Thus, unemployment is a state of an economy in which the number of jobs available in the country is less than the number of person seeking jobs. The result of this state is that the country is unable in providing jobs to all the persons willing and capable to do them.

Types of Unemployment in India

1. Structural Unemployment : When the resources of a country are limited and due to this, the country is unable in providing jobs to all job-seekers, it is called structural unemployment.

2. Under Employed : When the persons do not get work according to their ability, it is called under-employment.

3. Disguised Unemplöyment : When the number of persons engaged in a particular work is more than required, it is known as disguised unemployment. This type of unemployment is commonly found in India is agriculture.

4. Technological Unemployment : When some persons are thrown out if jobs because of the adoption of labour saving devices and mechanisation, it is known as technological unemployment.

5. Open Unemployment : When the number of jobs available in the country is less than the no. of job seekers, it is called open unemployment. Open unemployment may again be divided into : Rural unemployment and urban unemployment.

6. Accidental Unemployment : Some persons get job only in case of problems like food, drought, earthquake, war etc. When the problem is over, they again become unemployed. Such unemployment is known as accidental unemployment.

7. Seasonal Unemployment : When the nature of a trade or an industry is seasonal, most of the persons engaged in it, get work only for a certain period and remain unemployed for rest of the year. Such unemployment is known as seasonal unemployment.

Causes of Unemployment in India

1. Defective Education System : ‘Government education system is only theoretical and job-oriented the result is that our educated youth do not want to work.

2. Downfall of Handicraft and Small Scale Industries : An important reason of increasing unemplcyment is the downfall of handicrafts or small scale industries in our country. Every industry wants to adopt mechanisation, which, in turn, results unemployment.

3. Defective Thinking : Our young people prefer to get services. They do not want to start their own business, It increases the number of job seekers in the country.

4. Rapid Growth of Population : In India, the population is increasing at the rate of 1.93% per year. The fact is that no possible employment programme can provide complete employment in the country with such high rate of growth of population.

5. Insufficient Rate of Development : Rate of economic development in our country has not been as high as required, the result is that employment opportunities have not kept pace with increase in population.

6. Increasing Output of Universities : Our universities and boards produce a large number of matriculates, graduate a post-graduate every year while employment opportunities do not increase at this rate.

Suggestions for Removing Unemployment

1. Facilities for Self-employgnent : Government should provide adequate finance and all other necessary facilities for self-employment.

2. Better Facilities in Rural Areas : Government should try to provide all the possible facilities of accommodation, transportation, health, education, entertainrnent, communication etc., in the rural areas, it may encourage people to settle in rural areas.

3. Network of Employment Exchanges : Large nos. of employment exchanges must be established throughout the country, both in rural and urban areas.

4. Full Utilisation of Installed Capacity : Industries should be encouraoed to make full utilisation of their capacity so that new employment opportunities may be open vvithout investing further capital.

5. Proper Man Power Planning : A long term plan should be prepared in the country for making the best use of available man power.

6. Establishment of Training Camps : More and more train inp centres should be opened in the country so that the workers may be trained to their jobs.

7. Rapid Economic Development : Measures should be adopted to accelerate the rate of
economic growth in the country.

8. Control on Population Growth : Wisest step to solve the problelal of unemplovment, well be to control the growth of population.

9. Change in Education-system : Our education system must be changed in the manner that it may proguce job-orienied youth.

10. Development of Cottage and Small Scale Industries : Cottage and small scale industries should be developed because there industriés offer vast emplovment opportunities.

11. Development of Agriculture based Industries : Agriculture based industries should be developed because these industries may solve the problem of seasonal unemployment.  12. Survey of National Resources : India has vast natural resources but those resources are lying untitilised, undiscovered or undue utilized. Efforts should be made to discover these resources and to exploit them.
Fstimate of Unemployment in India : At the beginning of first five years plan, there were 33 lakhs unemployed persons in the country. According to the draft of sixth five year plan the number of unemployed persons at the end of 1980 was 347 lakhs. On 31 Marchn2002, on the eve of tenth five years plan, number of unemployed persons was estimated to be about 350 lakhs.

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