BBA 2nd Semester Elements of Models Business Communication Notes
BBA 2nd Semester Elements of Models Business Communication Notes :-
Short Questions Answer
Q. 1. Discuss the communication process.
Give various steps of communication process.
Explain the essential elements of communication.
Ans. Elements of Communication Process: The communication process is the inter-relationship between several inter-dependent components. It consists of a whole series of related action and reactions which together results in the sharing of the meaning. In order to understand how communication work it is necessary to describe each of these components and how component part fits into the whole process. A simplified model of communication process is given in figure. This model tells us what is the individual part of communication :
The process shows how these are related to each other. It also identifies the crucial points in the process and provides a guide line for analysis and planning of message. Different parts of communication process are described below :
1.Sender : The process of communication begins when the sender feels the need for it and the idea generates in his mind. Sender or transmitter is the source of the message and wants to transmit it for some purpose. The sender may be a speaker, a writer or an actor. He must have a clear picture in his mind of what he wants to communicate. Several ideas may generate in the sender’s mind’ The sender must identify, analyse and sequentially arrange the idea before transmitting them to the receiver, Otherwise the receiver may feel that the sender is mentally toying the help-baked ideas The ideas should be concrete. The sender should encode the idea in the form of a message.
2. Message : A message means what is being communicated. It may be verbal (spoken or written) or non-verbal (e.g. appearance, body language, silence etc). Message is the heart of communication.
3. Encoding : The sender puts his idea of facts into words, symbols, pictures or gestures which the other person can understand. This part of the communication process is called encoding. It also involves the choice of appropriate media so that the idea is translated into a message that can be transmitted to the other. Words and symbols should be selected carefully keeping in the mind the purpose of communication and the needs of the receiver. The words and symbols should be understandable.
4. Channel and Medium : The channel connects the sender with the receiver. For instance, timetable of a college is the channel which ensures that the teacher and the students go to the same classroom at the same time. No communication can take place if the teacher goes to room No. 21 but the students are in room No. 12, medium is different from channel. For example, a letter is the medium whereas mail service is a channel. Speech is the medium but loudspeaker is a channel. 5. Receiver : The person or group to whom the message is directed is known as receiver, The receiver represents the destination for the message. He may be a listener, a reader or a viewer. Like the sender he has an image of himself and the sender.
6. Decoding : The receiver translates the wordyand symbols used in the message into an idea and interprets it to obtain its meaning, this is called decoding and it is the opposite of encoding, If the receiver is familiar with the codes used and this perception is good. He will derive more or less the same meaning as meant by the sender. The message should be accurately reproduced in the recognized mind.
7. Feedback : After deriving the meaning, the receiver reacts or responds to the message, he sends back his response to the sender. This return flow of communication is called feedback. The process of communication is incomplete until the sender, received the feedback. If the feedback is in tune with the message, communication is said to be effective.
Feedback is the key element in communication as it is the only way of judging the effectivity of the message. Feedback indicates the knowledge about the outcome of communication.
Q. 2. What is listening process?
Ans. Listening Process : Listening and reading are the Rx’s activities in communication. As the speaker and the writer have the responsibility to encode carefully, so the listener and the reader have the responsibility to be attentive and to decode carefully.
All the four communication skills are important for any one holding a responsible positions However, much more communication time is spent on oral communication than on written communication and an efficient executive or manager spends more time on being the RX than on being the TX, that is, he needs to spend a great deal of the time listening to others rather than speaking. He must treat the ear as the main organ of communication. Research studies have shown that an exedutive’s communication time is spent roughly in the following proportion:
Writing : 16%
Reading : 16%
Speaking : 30%
Listening : 45%
Although most Of the communication time is taken up by listening, this skill is usually neglected in schools and business training courses. But recently, listening skill has been given attention and training is given to business executives and supervisors in the skill of listening. It can be improved with training.
Listening does not mean just hearing the words of the speaker; it means making effort to get his full meanings Besides the meaning Of the words, the choice of words is significant in indicating the speaker’S meaning- A SPeaker who is emotionally disturbed uses exaggerated words; an angry speaker chooses insulting or sarcastic words. Even the tone of voice, gesture, expressions and silences have meaning.
Listening during a speech is not enough; the listener has to retain, that is, remember, what he has heard. It is necessary to think over the communication received and to note it down, if necessary, immediately after the communication has been completed. It has been found that students listening to a ten-minute lecture can recall only 50 per cent immediately after the lecture and only 25 per cent on the next day. With training, the faults in listening can be corrected and efficiency can be improved.
Q. 3. Explain the nature of communication.
Ans. Nature of Communication : The concept of communication is universal and as old as human being. That is why different views have been expressed about the nature of communication. The nature of communication can be studied easily with the help of following facts :
1. Communication as a Human Process : Communication is a human process as it involves two or more persons. This human and organisational process is the means of recording knowledge and passing it on to the succeeding generations.
2. Communication as both an Art and Science : Communication contains both the elements those of a science and those of an art. Communication is a science because it provides a set of principles which can guide the management to find a solution to the specific problems. It is also an art as it develops new situations, new designs and new systems.needed for further improvement. Thus, it can be concluded that communication is both an art and science.
3. Communication as a Universal Process : The principles and techniques of communication are universal in application but not necessarily and exclusively applied to only business. These are applied to social, religious, charitable, formal, non-formal, non profit organisation also, The fundamental principles of communication are applied to all human activities from the simplest small group to great corporations and the public.
4. Communication as a Wide Process : Communication is not merely recognised as a process of giving information but it also includes to obtain the response of the other party and make corrections and changes in his attitude accordingly. The management can convey its expectations to workers and workers can put their suggestions and grievances before the management. Communication is the chain of understanding that integrates an organisation from top to bottom, from bottom to top and from side to side.
5. Communication as a Social Process : Communication is a social process as it enables everyone in the society to satisfy his basic needs and desires through exchange of written, spoken or non-verbal message. It is through communication that two or more persons interact and influence each other and consequently bridge the gap in their understanding.
Q. 4. How does horizontal or lateral communication contributes to the efficient functioning of an organisation?
Ans. Horizontal or Lateral Communication : Horizontal communication refers to the flow of information and ideas between persons and departments at the same level of authority (peers). It is communication among individuals and groups of equal rank or status. For example, production department may communicate with marketing department. Horizontal or lateral communication is a very frequently used channel. The main purpose of horizontal communication is to ensure mutual cooperation and)coordination between peers and inter-dependent work units. Horizontal communication occurs through both spoken and written words. Face-to-face exchange of views and conversation over telephone are examples of spoken words. These allow freedom of expression due to informal atmosphere. Doubts can be cleared on the spot and immediate feedback is available. Periodical meetings between heads of departments also enable persons of equal status to share information and ideas. Such discussions help to solve common problems and to create team work. Letters, memos and reports are written by means of horizontal communication.
Horizontal communication is essential for the smooth functioning of every organisation, The work of different employees and departments is inter-dependent. For example, the sales department cannot sell goods unless the goods are produced at the right time and cost and in right quality. Production department cannot do so until the purchase department procures the required materials and machinery. This is possible only when the finance department provides adequate funds at the required time. Horizontal communication keeps every department informed of the needs and activities of other departments. The main advantages of horizontal communication are as follows :
1. It helps to create mutual understanding and trust between people and departments.
2. It facilitates co-operation and coordination between different departments of the organisation.
3. It helps in setting interdepartmental and intradepartmental differences without the intervention of the management.
4. It makes it possible to solve problems at lower levels.
5. It is generally very effective because there are no status barriers. However, it may degenerate into gossip and rumours. There is a need to avoid such time wasting and counter-productive activities.
There are barriers to horizontal communication also. As each individual holds equal rank, none may take initiative to talk or write to others. This may create ice between colleagues. Some managers do not want their subordinates to communicate among themselves frequently on the fear that they may become too friendly and pose a threat to their authority. There is need to shed ago and communicate freely. Every employee should develop the habit of mutual consultations with his peers. Departmental heads should avoid unilateral actions and keep each other informed of their activities and problems. Employees at every level should keep their superiors informed of the flow of horizontal communication.
Q. 5. Explain the importance and limitations of diagonal communication.
Ans. Diagonal or Crosswise Communication : Diagonal or crosswise communication takes place when persons working at a lower level interact with those working at a higher level across the limits of their reporting relationships. The persons who communicqte are neither in the same work unit nor at the same level of organisational hierarchy. For instance, the production manager may communicate directly with sales officers in the marketing department.
Diagonal communication offers the following advantages :
1. Boosting Morale : Diagonal communication provides opportunity to lower level employees to interact with managers. This help to improve the morale and commitment of employees towards the organisation.
2. coordination : Formal and informal meeting under diagonal communication facilitates coordination between different work units in the organisation.
3. speedy Action : Direct interactions between superiors and subordinates working in different work units help to speed up action by cutting across departmental lines.
Diagonal communication suffers from the following limitations :
1. Resistance : When a manager directly interacts with the subordinates ofanother manager, the latter may feel that he has been bypassed. He may not implement the suggestions as he has not been consulted.
2. Violation of Unity of Command : Diagonal communication violates the principle of unity of command. It may cause confusion and conflicts in the minds of subordinates.
3. Anarchy : In the absence of well accepted procedures for diagonal interactions there may be internal anarchy in the organisation,
Q. 6. Discuss about downward communication.
Ans. Downward Communication : Downward communica- tions flow from a higher authority to a lower authority. For example, the message ofa branch may communicate next year’s deposit targets of the branch to his employees. Orders, Instructions policy statements, notices, circulars, job sheets and employee hand books are the main form of downward communication.
Downward communication is very common. It is based on the assumptions that at high level, individuals have the authority to communicate to lower level also known as “down stream” communicator. Both oral and written medium are used for downward communication. Face-to-face talks, telephone and public address are the main sources of oral message
Q. 7. Give the importance and limitations of downward communication.
Ans. Importance of Downward Communication : Importances of downward communica- tion are as follows :
1. To gives specific instructions and directions about the job entrusted to a subordinate so that the job is performed efficiently.
2. To explain the policies, procedures and programmes of the organisation to its employees.
3. To educate and train employees so as to improve their knowledge and skills.
4. To explain the subordinates the rationals of their jobs so that they understand the significance to their works in relation to organisation goals.
5. To inform the employees about their performance and achievements.
Limitations of Downward Communication
Downward communication suffers from the following problems :
1. Delay : As the line of communication is very longer. Downward communication is time-consuming process. A message sent by the chief executive might reach the clerical staff when it is no longer significant or relevant.
2. Too much or too Less Informations : Some superiors talk too much while others talk too less. When a manager transmits too much information to his subordinates, he may create confusion or may leak confidential informations .
3. Filtering : Most of the downward communication is oral. A large part of the information is lost during transit because some of its retained at every level. Research reveals that 80 per cent of the information is lost when transmitted downward through five level of management hierarchy. The lowest level worker does not receive the complete message sent by chief manager.
4. Distortion : In downward communication line of communication is often long. The message is screened at every successive level. Frequent twisting distorts the message and by the time it reaches its destination, its meaning may not be what the ‘sender intends.
5. Built-in-Resistance : Downward communication often requires changes in the work routine attitudes of subordinates. It is also authoritarian in nature as subordinates do not participate in deciding it. Therefore, downward communication generally causes resentment and faces resistance from employees.
Q. 8. Discuss the guidelines for effective communication.
Ans. Guidelines for Effective Communication : Communication experts have Suggested several tips and techniques for better communication. These techniques are given below :
1. Clarity : Good communication never “happens”. It does not take place off hand or random Rather it is the result of advance thinking and careful planning.
The principle of clarity, implies both clarity of thought and clarity of expressions.
2. Completeness : Every communication must be complete and adequate. Incomplete message keeps the receiver guessing, create misunderstanding and delay actions. Every person should therefore, be provided with all the required facts and figures.
3. Conciseness : Brevity is the soul of good communication. Therefore, we should use only relevant details in our message. Ruskin says, “say all you have to say in the fewest possible Words:
4. Consideration : In order to communicate effectively, think and look from the receiver’s angle.
The sender should accept a human approach and understand the emotions and sentiments of the receiver. He should understand and focus on the need of the receiver.
5. Correctness : You should not transmit any message unless you are absolutely convinced ofits accuracy and authenticity. If employees forward incorrect information to managers then decisions based on such information may be wrong. Similarly, transmission of incorrect information to outsiders may spoil relations and reputation.
6. Courtesy : Courtesy means a friendly and helpful behaviour towards other. Polite manners facilitate communication. Politeness encourage participative communication.
7. Attentiveness : While sending and receiving a message, you must pay full attention. While transmitting, attention is necessary to ensure that all the relevant details are included in correct and clear manner.
8. Objectivity : The communicator should be fully impartial while sending a message. He should not allow his emotions, attitudes or bias to distort the message. He should communicate unpleasant facts in such a way that the feelings of the receiver are not hurt.
9. Use Grapevine Strategically : According to this principle, informal channels of communication should be used judiciously to supplement the official channel information communication or grapevine can be fruitfully utilised particularly.
10. Feedback : Feedback should be used carefully in planning and executing communication, Where feedback is not automatically available, the sender should ask questions, request, reply etc,
11. Careful Use ofBody Language : In face-to-face oral communication, body language should be used to reinforce words. Proper posture, right eye contact and appropriate facial expressions help to make communication effective. Positive body language requires positive feelings.
12. Elimination of Noise : Noise is the greatest barrier of communication. Every possible effort must be made to eliminate noise caused by machine, equipment, communicator devices etc.
Q. 9. Discuss the various models of communication.
Explain the Indian models of communication.
Ans. Models of Communication : Communication model is meant to follow the path for Communication. There are many communication models to understand the process of
1. shannon and Weaver Model : Shannon and Weaver developed a model in 1949 in the field of electronic communication. Their model was popularlyknown as mathematical mode. They gave the following basic elements of process of communication.
(a) Information Sources : Idea originating in the mind of sender is said to be source of
(b) Transmitter : The sender transforms his idea into a message and sends it to another person called the transmitter.
(c) Noise Source : All the obstacles distorting a message are known as noise.
(d) Receiver : The person who receives an information is called the receiver. He decodes the message to have a better understanding.
(e) Destination : Communication process comes to an end at this step, the sender of message gets some feedback from receiver. However if no feedback is received, communication process comes to an end.
2. David Berlo’s SMCR Model : One of the best method widely used for communication model is SMCR model developed by Berlo. Although it is simple and versatile yet it presumes enormous background of behavioural science. This model illustrates the four basic concepts :
3. Danne’s Model : This model was formulated by a scientist Danne in 1967. According to him communication process revolves in the form of a circle having no starting or end points.
4. Thill and Boven Model : This model states that communication process starts from the generation of idea and upto reaction. When an idea emerges in the mind of somebody, it changes into message. Then it is sent to the receiver, who analyse it and sends his reaction to sender in the form of feedback.
5. Aristotle’s Model : The first step towards a development of a communication model had been taken by Aristotle. He had developed an easy, simple and elementary model of communication process. This model is based on the following three basic elements :
(a) The speaker (b) The speech (c) The audience (the person addressed)
Speaker —Y Speech —Y Audience
According to this model “the person addressed” is most important shaping the message.
6. Indian Models : In India communication models have been introduced from time to time. In earlier days, king used to send message to public and also used to listen to their complaints and suggestions. The different medium of communication were used by kings to transmit their message. Before freedom, Indians propounded different communication models for sending the message to different parties with the sole purpose of getting freedom.
Communication system in India during British period :
Communication system in India after independence :
Q. 10. Write four importances of feedback.
(a) Promote good relations.
(b) Improvement in the communication process.
(c) Modification in the message.
(d) Avoid errors in the communication.
Q. 11. What are the four guidelines for developing effective feedback skills?
(a) Focus on specific behaviour.
(c) Make feedback well timely.
(b) Keep feedback impersonal.
(d) Keep feedback goal oriented.