BBA Business Communication General Points Notes
BBA Business Communication General Points Notes :–
Q. 9. What do you mean by drafting? Which general points should be kept in mind while doing preparation of ideal drafting?
Ans. Drafting : Process of preparing rough format of letters, circulars and notes before giving them final touch is known as drafting. Rough drafting of any letter, information or circular is done before sending them to higher authorities. This process includes changes of different types in the presented subject matter, suggestions or corrections. After making required changes and amendmets message or information is sent to the related persons.
Process of drafting starts after completing planning and organizing the message. For drafting, all ideas are put on a paper and then these are reviewed with a fresh look. Words and sentences are revised and refined to improve the flow of message. While drafting, writer is free to re-arrange, add and delete the ideas. Enough space is left between the lines so that necessary changes may be made easily.
Guidelines for Effective Drafting
Following points should be kept in mind while making the draft of a letter :
1. According to Subject : Drafting should be done according to the subject matter. All the necessary details should be included in the matter and required reference is also to be given to make the drafting effective.
2. Balanced Presentation : For a good drafting, it is necessary that presentation of subject matter be made in a balanced way. For this purpose, whole matter is divided in a appropriate way such as description of subject, pre-instructions regarding the subject, systematic information regarding the facts etc.
3. Clear and Simple Language : The language used should be clear and simple which makes it easy to get the right meaning. It should not contain mis-leading sentences. when preparing the draft do not use unwaned words and do not repeat same words again and again. The letter should not be unnecessary lengthy.
4. Paragraph : There may be different sub-subjects related to a subject. In such a case each sub-subject should be explained in a different paragraph. The size of paragraph should be kept short to make it clear and effective.
5. Impressive and Forceful : The language used in the letter should be impressive and tactful so that it forces the reader to think about the desired purpose of the letter.
6. Based on Truth and Facts : The drafting should be based on truth and should not contain any self made facts and data. If the given data and facts are given with proofs then the receiver honours your commitment.
7. Avoid Using the Word I and We : ‘You’ attitude should be aopted instead of ‘l’ and ‘We” In some situations when the word ‘You’ cannot be used, a different manner of writing may be adopted. For example, instead of writing “A problem has arisen because of you” write “A problem has come up, 8. Quotation : TO make the subject more clear, quotations related to decisions and orders should be included in its original form. It helps to understand the importance of the subject matter.
9. Enclosure : Important papers which are attached to the letter to support the subject
matter, are known as enclosures. Number of enclosures should be indicated on the original letter.
Q. 10. Write a detail note on report writing.
Ans. Report and Its Nature : A report may be defined as a formal statement describing a state of affairs or what has happened. It contains detailed description of a problem or situation, findings of an investigation’ re Commendations or action taken. 11t generally includes conclusions and suggestions for future course Of A report is expected to be written in an informative and clear manner.
The main features of a report are as follows :
1. A report is a statement containing some information or an account of something.
2. It is an orderly presentation of facts about some activity, event or programme. In other words, a report is an organised and factual account of work done by a person/group or activities of an organisation. A report differs from the routine and casual exchange of information that takes place daily in business.
3. A report is an objective and unbiased presentation of facts. It is designed to present the truth irrespective of the consequences.
4. A report is written for a specific audience.
5, It contains conclusions drawn by the writer with the producer followed for collection and interpretation of data.
6. A report often includes recommendations.
7. A report is written for some specific purpose.
8. A report is submitted by a lower authority to a higher authority.
Types of Reports
Reports can be classified into several categories :
On the basis of communication media, reports can be oral and written.
1. Oral Reports : An oral report is a face-to-face communication of an impression or observation. It is comparatively informal and time saving. It is simple and easy to present. But the receiver has to listen to every word of it. It tends to be vague and provides no record for future reference.
2. Written Reports : A written report is relatively more accurate and precise. It tends to be more formal and can be referred to again and again. A written report provides a permanent record and cannot be denied at any time. It can change hands without any danger of distortion during Transmission. For example, A divisional manager may write a report giving his assessment of the Working of various branches he visits for the information of the top management of the bank. on the basis of the formal and procedures adopted, reports may be informal or formal.
3. Informal Reports : An informal report is usually in the form of person to person communication. It may range from a few lines to several pages of detailed information.
An informal report ‘is often written in the form of a letter or a memorandum.
4. Formal Report : A formal report is presented in a prescribed form. It is prepared in accordance with an established procedure and is submitted to a prescribed authority.
Formal report can be statutory or non-statutory.
5. Statutory Report : Reports prepared and presented according to the form and procedure laid down by law are called statutory report. Reports submitted at the statutory meeting of shareholders Directors report to the annual general meeting, annual returns, Auditors report are examples of statutory reports.
6. Non-Statutory Reports : Formal reports which are not required under any law but which are prepared to help the management in formulating policies and in taking important decisions are called non-statutory reports.
On the basis of frequency of issue, there can be routine reports and special reports :
7. Routine Report : These reports are prepared and presented in the usual routine Of business. For example, branch manager of banks submit regular reports to the head office on the quantum of business transacted during the period. Progress reports inventory reports, confidential reports on employees are examples of routine reports. Such reports contain a mere statement of facts without an opinion or recommendaiton. From these reports the concerned authority can judge the progress of work. Since these reports are presented at prescribed intervals, these are also called periodic reports.
They may be submitted annually, semi-annually, quarterly, monthly, fortnightly, weekly or even,
daily. Routine reports are usually written on the prescribed proforma.
8. Special Reports : A special report is prepared and presented in connection with specific situation or occasions. These deal with non-recurrent problems or issues. A report on the desirability of opening a new branch, a report on the unrest among staffin a particular branch. A report suggests the restructuring of the bank’s operations, laboratory report are examples of special report.
On the basis of function, a report can be either informational or interpretative.
9. Informational Reports : An informational report presents the data collected or facts observed in an organised form. It does not contain conclusions or recommondations. It presents the situation as it is and not as it should be. For example, a report containing only the data on deposits and advance of branches during the year is an informational reporta
10. Interpretative Reports : Such a report not only contains facts but also interpretation or evaluation of data. It includes the reports conclusions and may also contain recommendation for action. In the above example, if reasons for unsatisfactory position of deposits and advance and suggestions for improvement in future are added the report will become interpretative.
Steps in Report Writing : The process of preparing a report consists of the following steps :
Step I : Collect the Material
(a) Collect all the material, notes, documents etc.
Step II : Plan the Report
(a) Define the purpose of your report to whom it is to be submitted and how will it be used?
(b) Determine the information it should contain.
(c) Arrange the information in a logical order.
(d) Prepare an outline of the report.
(e) Decide where illustrations and diagrams are required,
Step III : Draft the Report
(a) Write the introduction purpose, the heading and the summary.
(b) Write the body of the report.
(c) Write the conclusions and recommendations.
Step IV: Edit the Report
(a) Examine the draft, will it serve the purpose?
(b) Check your grammar, spelling, punctuations, etc.
(c) Check your illustrations,
Q. 11. Write a detailed note on interview.
Define term (‘interview”. Discuss its types and techniques.
Ans. Interview : The word, ‘interview’ means ‘view between’ or ‘sight between.’ It suggests a meeting between two persons for the purpose of getting a view of each other or for knowing each other. When we normally think of an interview, we think of situation in which an employer tries to size up an applicant for a job, The employer’s aim is to know whether the applicant can be of service to his company and the applicant’s aim is to find out whether the job being offered by the company can be suitable to him. An interview is thus a means of two-way communication.
Selection interview is only one kind of interview though it is a major one. Apart from it, there can be appraisal interview to assess the performance of employee grievance. Interview is to learn about their grievance or complaints, exit interview with employees when they are leaving the company either on their own or through dismissal, reprimand interview when they are reprimanded on some disciplinary grounds etc.
Before we pass on to the actual conducting of interviews, let us discuss a few basic techniques of interview.
1. Screening : Since the number of applications for any job is very large several firms screen the applications to weed out unsuitable candidates. Then some more candidates are eliminated through a preliminary interview. Only very few who are really good are called for the final interviews.
2. Random Appearance : Some interviewers still believe that the man is more important than the application. They want to judge a man by his personal appearance rather than on the basis of his application. So they call every applicant for interview. This method may once in a while throw some really brilliant candidate in one’s way but it is usually expensive and confusing.
3. Tests : These days a number of firms resort to tests, written or oral, designed to juice the candidates intelligence, general knowledge, proficiency in language etc. In addition psychological testing has also come into vogue. Candidates who qualify these tests are invited for final interview.
4. Experience : Some employees believe that practical experience is more important than paper qualifications. One year’s practical experience, they think is equivalent to fifteen years spent in schools and colleges. So they do not call fresh candidates for interviews. This is not a very sound policy since it eliminates freshers, some of whom might be really brilliant, enthusiastic and committed,
5. Under Stress Interview : This is a special technique to ascertain how a candidate will acquit himself under conditions of exceptional stress and strain. He is exposed to embarrassing questions and provoked in various ways to find out whether he can retain his poise and equanimity in such trying conditions. This kind of interview is useful to select candidates for posts require great presence of mind and imperturbability of temperament.
Types of Interview
1. Appraisal Interview : An appraisal interview is usually held once a year to discuss the Performance of the employees. Such an interview has two goals—improved job performance and better relations and improved communications between the managers and the subordinates. Since the interview inevitably involves discussion of the employee’s short comings, both the manager and the employee’s fell embarrassed to face each other. But if the interview is held in a friendly and informal atmosphere with a positive approach on both the sides, it can prove to be a very constructive exercise. The following points may be kept in mind to make this interview successful :
(a) The manager should allay the fears of the employee’s with his friendly attitude,
(b) He should first talk about the plus points of the employee’s performance and compliment him This will make the employee feel encouraged,
(c) Short comings should be pointed out in a very clam and objective tone. Criticism should be accompanied by positive suggestions about how to improve the performance.
(d) The employee should be allowed to state his case. Perhaps he lacked facilities or he was overburdened or his training was inadequate or clear instructions were not given to him, or he had some personal problems. The manager should try to understand his problems or grievances arid offer help.
(e) Clear future targets should be set before the employee so that it is easier to assess his performance in future„
(f) The employee should also display a positive attitude. He should not flare up if any weakness of his is pointed out* On the contrary, he should be willing to learn. He should try to understand where exactly he had gone wrong and assure the manager that he will try to improve his performance.
2. Exit Interview : The exit interview takes place when the employee is leaving the organisation either voluntarily or through dismissal. If properly conducted, this interview can be quite useful for the organisation.
The outgoing employee is likely to be free and forth right in his comments, which can be used for the improvement of the organisation. However if the employee has been dismissed and harbours bitterness and rancour, it would be better to avoid the next interview.
(a) At an exit interview, the manager should talk as little as possible. He should encourage the employee to talk. And if the employee is reticent, the manager should gently hold him with questions to elicit his frank views on matters pertinent to the organisation. He should also make a mental note of the employee’s suggestions.
(b) The manager should also talk to the employee about his future plans, his prospects and his problems and assure him that he will always be received with warmth and cordiality whenever he visits them. Such a sentiment will promote the goodwill of the organisation.
3. Reprimand Interview : To reprimand someone is to criticise him severely for some undesirable statement or action. The manager summons the employee to his room and talks to him in his official capacity. A reprimand is a form of disciplinary action likely to be represented by the employees. But a good manager can use it in a constructive manner.
A reprimand interview has a three fold aim :
(a) To improve the work performance of the employee.
(b) To prevent the recurrence of such offences.
(c) To protect other employees from the malaise of anti-organisational behaviour.
And there are two aspects to it; the disciplinary aspect, where the employee is administered a warning, and the guidance aspect where the employee is helped to improve his performance.
Preparing for Reprimand Interview : 1. Nothing hurts more than unjust criticism and admonishment. So make sure that you possess all the facts of the case before calling the employee for the interview. Take time to investigate the matter as fully as possible and try to reach the bottom Of the matter. Remember that in the absence of facts the reprimand will look to be arbitrary and can be damaging to yourself, the individual concerned as well as the organisation.
2. All individuals are not cast in the same mould. All of them do not possess the same degree Of sensitivity What is mild to one may be very server to another. So keeping in mind the kind of person you are going to deal with plan what you are going to say or do during the interview and don’t get provoked into deviating from your plan.
3. DO not reprimand in public. Ensure full privacy during the interview. Let your secretary handle your phone calls and visitors till you are busy.
Q. 12. How should the interviewer plan and conduct the interview?
Ans. Interviewer’s Preparation for the Interview : Interviews are held with a three-fold objective in mind :
1. To find out the most suitable candidate for the job.
2. To give the candidates sufficient information about the job and the company so that they can
decide whether the job will suit them.
3. To create a sense of confidence and understanding in the selected candidate to promote the goodwill of the company by giving the right kind of impression to all the candidates whether or not they are to be selected. The realisation of this objective definitely calls for careful preparation.
As an interviewer, you must make the following preparation :
(a) You should have a clear picture of the company profile and of the nature of the job for which the interview is being held.
(b) You should know the type of personality, character or temperament required for the job.
(c) You should send the interviews letters well in advance so that the candidates are not inconvenienced and they also get sufficient time to prepare themselves for the interview. Clearly mention in the letter the documents you want, the candidates to bring with them.
(d) Make proper seating arrangement for the candidates in the waiting room. The room should be quiet with provision for newspapers and magazines so that the candidates can feel relaxed.
(e) The interviews itself should be conducted in a quiet room where there is little or no interruption. The telephone bell should neither be allowed to disturb, nor should the personal assistant be allowed to intrude. The interview should be held as far as possible, in an informal atmosphere.
(f) If the candidate is to be interviewed by a committee, each member of the committee should be in possession of a copy of the resume of the candidate so that there is neither any confusion nor wastage of time.
(g) You should decide before hand as to which member of the committee is going to initiate the interview. This will save the candidate from being bombarded with questions. According to the area of specialisation of the various members of the committee, you should divide among yourselves the areas in which you are going to ask questions.
Interviewee’s preparation for the Interview : If you are an interviewee, you should prepare yourself on the following lines :
1. Know yourself : This is probably the most important part of your preparation. Try to find out what you want to achieve through your work, inner-fulfilment, fame, position in society wealth, Security, comfort, travel, power. Before you apply for a job, be sure that you know why you are
applying for it and whether it will suit you.
2. Know the company : The next thing is to know the company in which you are seeking the job. You should try to find out as much as you can about its activities, its growth over the years, its future prospects, etc. if you reveal a sincere interest in the company and show that you have acquired knowledge about it on your own initiative, you will create a favourable impression on your interviewer.
3. Prepare for the questions : Anticipate the questions that you will probably be asked and interviewer, prepare answers to them. It is not difficult to anticipate these questions, for after all, you will be asked questions about your interest hobbies, achievements, prospects, relationship with your friends and members of the family. Try to be clear in your mind about the answers you will be giving. Don’t lie, for you will surely be caught and will spoil the whole show.
4. Prepare the questions that you would like to ask : If the interviewer does not offer you full information about the company and the job, you must ask questions to gain this information. prepare the questions that you would like to ask. These questions might relate to formal or informal training, promotional avenues, fringe benefits etc.
How to Conduct the Interview
1. Welcoming the candidate : Welcome the candidate exactly in the same way you would welcome a friend who visits you at your office or home, Give him a warm smile and talk to him in a friendly tone or voice. Hold with him some small talk in an area which you think is familiar to him, Very few candidates are perfectly free from nervousness before they enter in the interview room and if you start interviewing them before they have overcome their nerviousness, you cannot expect them to reveal the best in them.
2. Contents of the interview : After you have made the candidate feel at ease, you should start talking to him on the subject you want to know about. The things you would particularly like to know include, according to Theodore Hariton, the candidates technical qualifications (ability to do the job), drive and aspirations (willingness to do the job), social effectiveness and emotional balance (relations with others and self), characteristics and other facts, related to his physical vigour and energy, spouse’s attitude toward the job, financial, stability, willingness to travel, willingness to make permanent moves. You should make a special note of those aspect of the candidates personality that relate to interest patterns, attitudes, character and temperament. You should also ask him details about his previous experience, duties, salary drawn and the reason for changing the job if he happens to be already working somewhere. When the candidate is providing this information, you must show that you are keenly interested in what he is telling you and may even take notes. If you feel the candidate is suitable and you might offer him the job, give him all the details about your company and the job.
3. Parting : Parting is as important as welcoming. You should thank the candidate for having come for the interview and tell him that he will soon be informed of the outcome. It is desirable to give him a specific date by which he will be informed and keep this date or you may politely tell him that you will intimate him by a certain date if he is selected, so that if he does not hear from you by that date, he presumes that he has not been selected.
Arriving for the Interview
1. Dress appropriately : You should be suitably dressed for the occasion. Your clothes as well as general appearance should be neat. Fingernails should be clear, shoes polished and hairstyle appropriate. Lotions, creams and perfumes should be used sparingly. The accessories should complement the suit or dress. Your appearance should not be garish in any way.
2. Take with you your certificates : If the interview letter mentions some certificates, testimonials or other document do not forget to take them with you, If you think there are some other papers that might be of use to you during the interview, put them also in your briefcase.
3. Arrive for the interview in time : This is of utmost importance. Try to arrive at the place Of
interview ten to fifteen minutes before the scheduled time. This will give you enough time to relax and prepare yourself for the interview.
How to become an Effective Interviewer
Murphy and Peck in their book ‘Effective Business Communications’ have listed the following
suggestions for a person who wants to become an effective interviewer : 1. Let the applicant do most of the talking. If you talk more than 50 per cent of time, you are interviewing yourself not conducting an interview.
2. Use brief verbal responses that will keep the applicant talking prod with question such as “Tell me more,” “That’s interesting,” “What happened than”.
3. Give your entire attention to the interviewee and respond by encouraging facial expression, movement and expression of the eyes and nods of the head.
4. Allow pauses in the conversation if you think the applicant will reveal important information. But avoid lengthy pauses or a pause when the applicant has definitely finished a topic.
5. Try to understand the applicant, who intern may volunteer really useful information.
6. Make self expression easy for the applicant.
7. Respect the feelings of the other person even though you consider the person wrong.
8. At all times accept what the applicant says. Never frown, show surprise or show disapproval.
9. Avoid the impulse to cut the applicant off or change the subject abruptly.
10. Never argue.
11. Sit on the same side of the desk as the applicant and use informal plain language,
How to Conduct Yourself During the Interview
1. Don’t be nervous or agitated while entering the interview room. See carefully where you are going and do not trip over the carpet or the doormat. Do not wear a show or a stupid smile at the time of entering.
2. Greet the interviewers with a polite good morning.
3. Do not sit down until you have been asked to. Even the posture in which you sit is important.
Don’t sit stiffly. Don’t be relax. Sit in a natural composed manner.
4. When the interviewer starts conversation, pay attention to what he says. Do not interrupt him. Respond to him only at the appropriate time.
5. Give very relevant answer to his questions. Do not ramble along or the interviewer will look
bored. Do not be too abrupt or you will appear to be rude.
6. Do not try to make an exhibition of your knowledge. Don’t boost of your capabilities. It is for the interviewer to find out how capable you are and he will judge you with the help of some penetrating questions, which you must answer frankly.
7. If there is something you do not know admit it straightway. It is useless to pretend knowledge where you are actually ignorant. Many candidates spoil their interview by telling a ‘lie and landing themselves in an embarrassing situation.
8. If you are being interviewed by someone who does not possess as many college degrees as you have, do no put on airs. Give the interviewer your full cooperation and respect. In addition to knowing your qualifications, the interviewer must also be preparing some kind of reaction reports and if you try to look superior, the reaction report is bound to be unfavourable.
9. When your interviewer is over, do not forget to thank the interviewer. You may even tactfully ask when the result will be made known to you.
10. If your interviewer has not talked about the job, do not be afraid to ask questions your self.
Full knowledge of the job will help you to decide whether you ought to accept it or not.
11. If the job is offered to you, you may accept it immediately or ask for time to think over it, depending upon your circumstances.
Suggestions to Ensure the Success of an Interview
The responsibility for the failure of an interview lies both with the interviewer and the interviewee. If the following points are kept in mind, a lot of unnecessary unpleasantness and wastage can be avoided
1. The interview should not form an overall opinion about the candidate on the basis of aspect of his personality. For example, if the candidate is given to some kind of does not necessarily imply that he is incompetent. If he has said somthing about him previous employer, it is not an indication that he will betray the next employer also.
2. The interviewer may have some kind of personal bias. He may be having some kind of picture of the ideal candidate for the job. He should keep aside his bias and be scientific in approach.
3. The interviewer should not judge a candidates mental capability and his character fb basis of such factors as his personal appearance, date of birth, number of Ietters in his lines on the palm of his hand, hand writing. People do not have sufficient of sciences to be sure of their conclusion.
4.The interviewer must vary the nature of his questions and the tone of his voice to Suit individual candidates. If he goes on asking stereotyped questions mechanically, he will getstereopyed answers and he will not be able to make a correct decision,
5. The interviewer should try to judge the candidate afresh and not go by what him, former employer has to say about him.
6.The interviewer should not accept all the facts stated by the candidate without probing, t’, determine their meaning and accuracy.
7. The interviewer should not be cold and unfriendly. He should not try to unnerve the candidate
by putting on airs or superiority.
8. The interviewer must observe non-verbal clues like gestures, facial expression, voice
changes, hasitation etc.
9. The interviewer should prepare his questions really well.
10. The candidate must not try to anticipate the needs and preferences of the interviewer and respond accordingly. Some candidates try to be over smart instead of giving answers they ought to, they give answer they think the interviewer would like to get, In this way they get trapped by their own cleverness.
11. Neither the interviewer nor the candidates should be discourteous or rude towards each other.
12. Neither of them should try to dominate the interview.
13. Neither of them should try to interrupt the other during his talk.
Q. 13. How will you classify survey methods ? Briefly describe each method.
Ans. Classification of Survey Methods : Survey methods can be classified as follows :
(I) Personal Interviews.
(II) Telephone Interviews.
(Ill) Mail Interviews.
(IV) Electronic Interviews,
Survey can be conducted with the help of questionnaires and interviews. Questionnaires are preferred in most of surveys as these are less expensive. Large samples can be dealt simultaneously if questionnaire mailing is possible, Further standardized questionnaires have uniformity and tend to be more objective. But one of the greater disadvantages is that of low response rate, especially if the questionnaire is mailed. The other methods of data collection is the use of interview, Interview can be used in all segments of the population. The sample for interview tend to be more representative Of population as compared to questionnaire. In the individual depth interview, interviewer freely develops questions as he or she goes along with the interviewing process and don’t influence the respondent who is free to respond as he or she likes. In focus group interviews a group of individuals interviewed by the researcher focusing on the given topic Group is led by a moderator and is informed of topic in advance. Respondents are free to express their own lines of thought and opinion but are controlled with perspective of subject under focus.
An is a purposeful discussion between two or more people. The use of interview can help the researcher to gather valid and reliable data that are relevant to research questions and objectives.
The interview can be :
1. Structured/ semi-structured/un-structured.
3. Respondent or informant.
structured Interviews : A structured interview (also known as a standardised interview or a researcher-administered survey) is a quantitative research method commonly employed in survey research. The aim of this approach is to ensure that each interview is presented with exactly the same questions in the same order. This ensure that answers can be reliably aggregated and that comparisons can be made with confidence between sample subgroups or between different survey period.
Structured interviews are a means of collecting data for a statistical survey. In this case the data are collected by an interviewer rather than through a self administered questionnaire. Interviewer read the questions exactly as they appear on the survey questionnaire. The choice of answers to the questions is often fixed (close-ended) in advance, though open-ended questions can also be included within a structured interview.
A structured interview also standardize the order in which questions are asked of survey respondents, so the questions are always answered within the same context. This is important for minimizing the impact of contest effects, where the answers given to a survey question can depend on the nature of preceding questions. Though context effects can never be avoided, it is often desirable to hold them constant across all respondents. Semi-structured and unstructured interview are non-standardized. In semi-structured interviews the researcher will have a list of themes and questions to be covered; although these may vary from interview to interview. So this mean that researcher may omit some questions. The order of questions is also different and depends on flow of interview. Unstructured interviews are informal. These are used in depth to explore the particular area of interest. So these are also called as indepth interviews. There is no particular list of questions but the general aspect is clear about which to as (Il-lestion to the respondents. It is also informant interview since it is the interviewees perception that guide the conduct of the interviews. In comparison a respondent interview, is one where the interview directs the interview and the interviewer responds to questions of the researcher.
Interview may be conducted on one to one basis. This kind of interview is between the interviewer and the single respondent. This may be with the help of telephone but generally it is on face-to-face basis. In other cases, semi-structured or indepth interviews meay be conducted with small group- Design of Study
Interviewer usually the following techniques (also called protective techniques) which in ing the interview :
In this test, either the first word or thought that comes to mind, when
I. Association test present a word or phrase or thoughts, is given by the respondent, The responses researcher analyzed for It jeans ring attitudes.
2. Completion test : In sentence completion tests, respondent complete an incomplete sentence when presented.
3. Construction technique : A cartoon is shown to the respondent and respondent Writes a
story or draws a picture,
4. Third person techniques : The respondent is informed about what a third person posses does or what characteristic he has, The respondent is then asked to express his feeling towards these,
5. Expression techniques : Mainly include role-played by the respondent of the behaviour of
(I) Personal Interviews : In personal interviews, respondents are interviewed face-to-face. If
the interview is conducted at the residence of the respondent, such an interview may be called as In personal interview. The researcher or interviewers task is to contact the respondents, ask the questions and record the responses. If the interview is conducted at some shopping place, then the generic term used is in mall intercept personal interview. The questionnaire used maybe the same as in home interview. The advantage of mall-intercept interviews is that it is more efficient for the respondent to come to the interviewer than for the interviewer to go to respondent. Nowadays computers are assisting personal interview and such a method is called in computer assisted personal interviewing method. If the respondent sits in front of a computer terminal and answers a questionnaire on the computer screen by using the keyboard or a mouse. Since, an interview is usua-lly present to guide the respondent needs, this method is a form of personal interviewing technique. Kiosks are also used toad minister questionnaire. For example nowadays ATMs of several banks ask common questions about loan disbursal, service of banks and personal financial planning from the customers, who visits the ATM for banking operation.
Advantages of Personal Interviews
1. Good cooperation from participants.
Interviewer can ask questions about survey, probe for answers, use follow up questions and gather information about observation.
3. Special visual aids and scoring devices can be used and illiterate participants can be reached.
4. Interviewer can prescreen participants to ensure that he or she fit the population profile,
5. Through computer assisted personal interviewing, response can be entered into a portable microcomputer to reduce error and cost.
Disadvantages of Personal Interviews
1. High cost. 2. Need of highly trained interviewers, 3. Longer period needed in the field for collecting data. 4. May be wide geographic dispersion. 5. Follow-up is labour intensive. 6. Not all participants are available or accessible, 7. Some participants are unwilling to talk to strangers in their homes, 8. Some neigh bour hoods are difficult to visit. 9. Questions may be altered or participants may be coached by interviewers.
(11) Telephone Interviews : In this kind of interview, interviewer phones to the respondents
and asks them a series of questions. The conduct of this kind of interview may be computer assisted also, commonly known as computer assisted telephone interview which uses a computerized questionnaire administered to respondent over the telephone. The advantages of telephone interviews are many such as time spent interview is reduced, better data quality, laborious steps in data collection process are avoided, efficient and speedier data analysis as there is no need to go for data coding because the responses are entered directly into the computer interim and update report on data collection or results can be provided almost instantaneously.
Advantages of Telephone Interviews
1. Lower cost than personal interview.
2. Expanded geographic coverage without dramatic increase in cost.
3. Use fewer but highly skilled interviewers.
4. Reduces interviewer biasness.
5. Completion time is very fast.
6. Better access to reach participants.
7. Can use computerized random dialing.
8. Through computer assisted telephone interviewing, responses can be entered directly into a computer file to reduce error and cost.
Disadvantages of Telephone Interviews
1. Response rate is lower than personal interview.
2. Higher costs if interviewing, geographically dispersed sample.
3. Interview length is limited.
4. Sometimes many phone numbers are unlisted or not working making directories unreliable.
5. Some target groups are not available on phone.
6. Responses may be partially complete.
7. Illustrations cannot be used.
(III) Mail Interviews : In the mail interviews, questionnaires are mailed to respondents. The respondent complete and return questionnaire, there is no verbal interaction between researcher and the respondent. But the main consideration in this type of data collection method is that respondent need to be broadly defined and identified.
Some of the sources for mailing ‘lists are the telephone directories, industrial directories, association directories, yellow pages etc. Mailing lists can be purchased from the commercial sources also. Regardless of lists source, a mailing list should be currently and closely related to the population of interest. Sometimes companies make use of mail panels which consists of a large representative sample of household that are ready to participate in the survey to be conducted by respective Company that adds them in the mail panel. Use of mail panel increases the response rate to a larger extent because of the commitment of the respondent to answer the question. Also, mail panels can be used to obtain information from the same the respondent and mail panel can be used to obtain information from same respondent repeatedly and used to-implement a longitudinal design.
Advantages of Mail Interviews
1. Mail surveys are low in cost compared to the other method of surveying.
2. Mail survey provide convenience as the participants are able to work on surveys at leisure.
3. Because the mail survey does not allow personal contact between the researcher and the respondent, there is a little chance for personal bias based on first impressions altering the responses.
4. It is possible to reach a greater population and have a larger universe (sample Of respondents) with this type of survey because it does not require personal contact between the researcher and respondents.
Disadvantages of Mail Interviews
1. One of the biggest drawback especially in mail survey is its low response rate.
2. Another problem with self-administered survey is three fold assumptions about the physical ability, literacy level and language ability of the respondents. Because the most surveys select the participants either from a random sampling or convenience sampling, it is impossible to control for such variables.
(IV) Electronic Interviews : Survey can be conducted electronically with the help of e-mail or can be administered through internet. In an e-mail survey, a list of e-mail address is obtained. The questionnaire is mentioned within the body of e-mail message. Respondents can take the e-mails as spam mail and may be reluctant or even block the sender’s e-mail id. In most of e-mail software, questionnaire can’t vitalize programmed skip pattern logic checks, or randomization. Respondents may be unwilling to open up the mail from unknown respondent because of perceived virus attack.
All these factors reduce the quality of data from an e-mail survey and can require post survey data cleaning.
In contrast e-mail survey’s internet or web survey use questionnaires which are posted on the web page. Respondents.may be recruited through internet, potential respondent databases, through e-mail or they can be recruited by conventional methods. Many a times respondents are not recruited, they happen to be visiting the website where the survey is posted from where they are invited to participate in the surveys. In the language of web it is possible to introduce skip patterns, logic checks or other randomization technique which are difficult to introduce in e-mail survey. The responses are collected in an adjoining database. All these factors contribute to higher quality data, In the internet surveys, since respondent deliberately join survey after clicking the link to it, there can be respondent self selection bias. The same can be removed by using a sample, where individuals are pre-selected and invited to web survey. Also serve bias may be introduced respondent tries to answer repeatedly, Several other kinds of electronic methods are in vogue today as in form of Short Messaging Services ISMS) in mobile phone, small question on online messengers surveys appearing on blogs etc.
Advantages of Electronic Interviews
1. Short turnaround of results.
2. Ability to use visual stimuli.
3. Ability to do numerous surveys over time.
4. Ability to attract participants who are otherwise difficult to reach,
5. participant feel anonymous, therefore are free to the participate in survey.
6. shorter turn around from questionnaire draft to survey execution.
7. Experiences unavailable by other means.
Disadvantages of Electronic Interviews
1. Recruiting the right sample is costly and time consuming.
2. Unlike telephone and mail survey, no list exists.
3. Technical as well as research skill is required to the conduct web survey.
4. Converting questionnaire to web page is sometimes expensive.