BBA Environmental Studies AIDS Human Rights Notes
BBA Environmental Studies AIDS Human Rights Notes :-
Q. 1. Write an essay on human rights.
Ans. Human Rights : In order to provide uniform rights and independence established a human rights commission under the presidentship of Mrs. Roosvelt. UN general council on 10th Dec. 1948 adopted the declaration prepared by the commission, thus, 10th Dec. is celebrated as human rights day. The declaration has a preamble and 30 articles. For the first time it established the social rights along with civil and political rights of man.
The Universal Declaration of Human rights as a common standard of achievement for all people and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society keeping This declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these right and freedoms and by progressing measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effected recognition and observance, both among the people of members states themselves and among the people of teritria under their jurisdiction.
Article 1 : All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
Article 2 : Everyone is entitled and all the rights and freedoms set fourth in this declaration, without distination of any kind, e.g., race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national and social origin, property, birth or other status.
Article 3 : Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
Article 4 : No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Article 5 : No one shall be subjected to inhuman treatment or punishment.
Article 6 : Every one has a right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
Article 7 : All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law.
Article 8 : Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by constitution or by law.
Article 9 : No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Article 10 : Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determinating his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
Article 11 : Everyone charged with penal offence has a right to be presented innocent until
Article 12 : No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family house or correspondence, nor to attack upon his honour and reputation.
Article 13 : Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. Every one has right to leave any country, including his own and to return to his country.
Article 14 : Everyone has the right to seek to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
Article 15 : Everyone has the right to nationality No one shall be arbitrarilv deprived nationality nor denied the right to change this nationality.
Article 16 : Man and women of full age, Without any limitaition due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and Kill consent of the intending spouses. The familv is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and entitled to protection by
Article 17 : Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
Article 18 : Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
Article 19 : Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, it includes freedom to hold opinion without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and through any media and regardless of frontiers.
Article 20 : Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
Article 21 : Everyone has the right to take part into government of his country, directly and Through freely chosen representatives. Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
Article 22 : Everyone as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled To realization, through national efforts and International cooperation and in accordance with the
organization and resurcs of each state, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Article 23 : Everyone has a right to work to free choice of employment, to just and favourable condition of work and to protection again unemployment. Everyone, without any discrimination has the right to equal pay for equal work. Everyone has the right to form and to Join trade union for the protection of’ his interests.
Article 24 : Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, inclusive reasonable limitation to hours and periodic holidays with pay.
Article 25 : Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well Being of himself and his family including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary Social services, Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance.
Article 26 : Everyone has the right to education which shall be free, at least in the Elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education is compulsory.
Article 27 : Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement of its benefits.
Article 28 : Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and development of his Declaration can be fully realized.
Article 29 : Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full Development of his personality is possible.
Article 30 : Nothing in this declaration may be interpreted as implying for any state, group Or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed and the destruction of Any of the rights and freedom set forth herein.
The government of India has established human rights commission for the centres as well as States to the universal declaration of human rights.
Q. 2. What is AIDS ? What are the sources and modes of transmission of infection ?
Ans. AIDS: AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome), also called slim diseases, is a fatal illness casued by a retrovirus known as the Human Immuno Deficiency virus (HIV) Which breaks down the body’s immune system, leaving victim vulnerable to a host of life person is infected with HIV it is probable that person will be infected for life. Strictly speaking, AIDS refers only to the last stage of HIV.
In Order to overcome this problem of population explosion, a sound population policy is
required With following objectives :
1. Quick economic development and raising per capita income.
2. Integrating population planning with economic planning.
3. Death rate should be brought down further, as high death rate results In wastage of human energy.
4 Significant reduction in birth rate, which is more fundamental and important that first byproviding legal and fiscal motivations like raising age of marriage, legalising abortion, etc.
5. Planning of population must not aim merely at controlling rate of multiplication but it should also include improvement of quality of population as well by providing better facilities induction, health, etc.
Q. 3. What is role of information technology in improving human health’?
Ans. When a patient enters a hospital or consults a doctor, a complete medical history must be on hand. In the early days this information was obtained by lengthy interviews. With the advent of computers, many hospitals have automated this activity. Automated system has reduced the time involved in obtaining patients history. The medical ‘history of patient can be printed and can be sent to the physician for review. In pharmacies, doctor’s office and hospitals this technology can be helpful in the following ways .
1. Computer assisted diagnosis helps to provide preventive health care and can complete extensive patients screening tests through non-surgical techniques. Three important applications for computer assisted diagnosis are :
(a) Multiple Health Testing (MPHT)
(b) Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT or CT)
(c) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
2 Computer-controlled devices are used where patients need constant monitoring such as in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), post-operative recovery rooms and premature-baby nurseries.
3. Some computer devices stimulate muscles to move. These are used for treatment ofpatients paralysed by strokes, accidents or cerebral plasy.
4. Computers are used for developing new drugs in less time and with less cost.
5. Many organisations such as WHO maintain their web sites to inform about dangerousdiseases.
6. Telemedicine and distance medicine is now far-reaching along with documentation and display of human anatomy with the help of Internet.
7. Any new development in the field of surgery is also available on net to be referred by doctors of any country at any time.
Q. 4. Suggest precautions to be taken to avoid AIDS.
Ans. Precautions and Methods to Control AIDS: Following precautionarv methodsare suggested to avoid the occurrence of AIDS.
1. Do not Indulge in homosex.
2. Avoid sex with many partners.
3. In case of blood transfusion, verify that the blood is neither contaminated nor infected.
4. Use condoms during sex, particularly if the partner Is unknown
5. Use deposal needles and syringes for blood transfusion.
6. Avoid intravenous drug abuse.
7. Women suffering from AIDS or at the risk of infection should avoid becoming pregnant.
Controlling : Following cares are suggested to control the AIDS
1. Ethical control: Do not indulge in sex with a woman other than the wife.
2. Biological control: Donated blood; body organs and tissues etc. should be screened before transfusion and implants.
3. Preventive control: Hospitals, clinics and other medical centres should strictly ensure that the syringes and needles are sterilized before use.
4. Medical treatment : Medicines and vaccines, if any, should be used. Presently, certain medicines like saquinavir (SQR), zidovudine (Azt), lamivudine (eTc) are known to exist, but they
can only delay the HIV effects and cannot permanently cure.
5. Health education: People should be educated widely about it through various advertisement channels, print and electronic media etc.
Finally AIDS controlling programmes should be made integral with primary health care programme.
Q. 5. Describe the role of information technology in environment and human health.
Ans. Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health : Information technology (IT) is a methodology of system that envisages the reciprocation of information and instant communication from one place to another anywhere in the world. The information may be related to scientific reasearches, meteorological data, environmental predictions or human health. Important role of information technology is mainly attributed to development of World Wide Web (WWW).
The role of information technology is very vast in the fields of environment and human health. This has become possible by the advancements that have taken place in different fields of It Some of those fields are the following.
1. Internet and websites 2. Computer networking 3. Database, data processing methods and digital communication 4. Online IT services 5. Bioinformatics 6. Geographic information system (GIS) 7 Remote sensing information system (RSIS) etc.
Q. 6. Explain application of information technology in rural areas.
Ans. Information technology is used in development of rural areas. The various applications of it in rural areas are termed as follows :
1. Use of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing can help in determining the rates causes and seal of biodiversity loss.
2. Due to information technology we can control population growth in rural areas. For example we can say about family welfare programme and acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
3. We can give knowledge about “Human Rights” by using the IT in Rural Areas.
4. Advances in telecommunication and other forms of IT have contributed to the creation of new patterns of work and human association in rural areas. Telecommuting used in reducing energy and pollution.
5. We can use information technology for agriculture rural areas
6. When a patient enters a hospital or consults a doctor a complete medical history must be on hand in the early days this information was obtained by lengthy interviews. With the advent Of computers many hospitals have automated this activity. We can use this facility in rural areas
(a) Computer assisted diagnosis help to provide preventive health care and can complete extensive patients screening tests through non-surgical techniques. Three important applications for computer assisted diagnosis are:
(i) Multiple Health Testing (MPHT)
(ii) Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT or CT)
(iii) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
(b) Computer-controlled devices are used where patients need constant monitoring such as in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), post-operate recovery rooms and premature-baby nurseries.
(c) Computers are used for developing new drugs in less time and with less cost.
(d) Programmers and engineers work closely with physicians using computers to design
prosthesis (artificial parts of body) and to create models for re-constructive surgery.
Q. 7. What do you understand by AIDS? How it is spread? Give symptoms and control of AIDS.
Ans. HIV/AIDS : AIDS, is abbreviation of Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. It is not hereditary disease but it is caused by HIV (Human Immumodeficiency Virus). It spreads from Infected Person through blood contact and unprotected sex, sharing needles or syringes contaminated with small quantities of blood from HIV positive person. It can also pass from infected mother to their babies during pregnancy, delivery or breast feeding. It does not spread
through tears, sweat, urine, faeces. It also does not spread by sharing utensils, towels, clothing,
toilet seats or insect bite like mosquito. HIV virus causes a slow and unstoppable distruction of
the patient’s immune system. Virus was discovered in 1984 by Americarkand French scientists. At present millions of people are infected with the HIV virus in the world. About 90% infected people belongs to developing countries. The highest concentration of HIV infection is in Africa
which accounts for 13% of the worlds population with 69% of the cases of HIV infection. The first case of AIDS from India was reported in a Chennai prostitute in 1986. Since then there has been an increase in the number of HIV infections over the years.
Transmission : AIDS can be transmitted by
1. Transfusion of infected blood.
2. Sexual intercourse with infected person.
3. Use of contaminated needles, syringes
4. Infected mother to her baby before birth, during birth or through breast feed.
5. Organ transplantation.
The sexual route of transmission accounts for over 75% of infections. AIDS can take around
7-10 years to develop after the infection.
HIV is not transmitted by :
1. Drinking water or eating food from the same utensils—cups, glasses, plates, used bv infected person. 2. Shaking hands 3.Hugging or facial kissing. 4. Working with people who are HIV infected. 5. Swimming in pools used by people with HIV/AIDS 6. Through mosquito bite. 7. Socialising or casually living with people with HIV/AIDS.
Symptoms of AIDS : Symptoms of AIDS include :
1. Occurrence of cancerous tumours in connective tissues. 2. Destruction of white blood corpuscles. 3. Unexplained fever, loss of appetite and loss of weight over a short time,
4. Damage to brain, chronic diarrhoea, cough, night sweats, shortness of breath and weakness.
5. Enlargement of lymph glands.
Preventation of AIDS : The following steps may help in controlling this dreaded disease :
1. Avoid multiple partners and use condom during intercourse. 2. Use disposable syringes and needles. 3. Before receiving blood, ensure that it has been screened for HIV. 4. Razors and other articles that can become contaminated with blood should not be shared. 5. People should be educated about AIDS transmission,
Q. 8. Discuss human rights in brief.
Ans. Human Rights : Human rights are the rights that a human beings must enjoy on this earth. Although the foundation of human rights was laid in 13th century when resistance to religious intolerance, socio-economic restraints and scientific dogmas resulted in some revolts mainly due to the liberal thoughts of some philosophers. However, true hopes for all people for happy, dignified and secure living conditions were raised with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UNDHR) by the UNO on December 10, 1948. This declaration provided comprehensive protection to all individuals against all forms of injustice and human rights violations. The UNDHR defines specific rights, civil, political, economic, social as well as cultural. It defines the rights to life, liberty, security, fair trial by law, freedom of thoughts, expression, conscience, association and freedom of movement. It emphasizes right to equal pay for equal work, right to form and join trade unions, right to health care, education, adequate rest, etc. Although the human rights are considered to be universal, there is a wide disparity between the developing and the developed countries. Population and poverty are often found to be the most important causes of violation of human rights. The World Health Organisation estimate indicates that one out of every five persons in this world is malnourished lacks clean drinking Water, lacks proper hygenic conditions and adequate health facilities, one out of three persons does not have enough fuel to cook or keep warm and one out of five persons is desperately poor for whom life is nothing but struggle for survival. Every year 40 million people are dying due to consumption of contaminated drinking water. Under such conditions, a poor man feels that perhaps his child can earn something for himself or the family. For him, the merit of universal education and child labour prevention is of much less importance than his grim struggle for existence.
On the other hand, for the developed countries which have already attained a high stage of development in material and economic resources, the social and economic rights are not that important as civil and political rights. Whereas, the reverse is true for the developing countries which are struggling for life under conditions of extreme poverty, ignorance, illiteracy, malnutrition and diseases. For them civil and political rights carry little meaning, In June 1993, during the Vienna World Conference on Human Rights, the need for economic and social rights were considered as equal to the west’s civil and political rights. Respect towards human rights is now considered to be one of the important criteria for giving development assistance to a country.
In India, human rights issues have mostly centred around slavery, bonded labour, women Subordination, custodial deaths, violence against women and minorities, child abuse, dowry death, mass killings of dalits, torture arbitrary detentions, etc. The constitution of India contains a long list of people’s civil, political, economic and social rights for improving their life. Yet it is an irony that violation of human rights takes place rather too often m our country Civil liberties and fundamental freedom are also often violated by those who have money Power Social discriminations, untouchability, patriarchal society with male domination, etc. still prevail in the society which hinder the honour of human rights. There is need to respect the human rights of all people in every nation for overall development and peace.
As the right to development was defined, another aspect of human right related to environment emerged, After the earth summit 1992, the need for sustainable development was recognized. Soon after on May 16, 1994 at Geneva, the United Nations drafted the first ever Declaration of Human Rights and Environment which embodies the right of every human being to a healthy, secure and ecologically sound environment„ A sustainable society affirms, equity. security. attainment of basic human needs and environmental justice to all.
Q. 9. Write short notes on Birth Control measures.
Ans. Birth Control Measure: Modern day there are several birth control measures available. Some of these techniques are safer, easier and convenient to use. The major Categories of birth control measures are as follows :
(a) Mechanical barriers preventing contact between sperm or ovum : There are Cervical caps, condoms, diaphragm, vaginal gels and spermicides, etc.
(b) Avoidance of sex during fertile period : The period Of ovulation must be avoided.
(c) Surgical methods : Tubectomy, vasectomy, etc.
(d) Chemicals preventing maturation, release of sperm or egg and implantation of embryo in uterus : The pills estrogen and progesterone.
(e) Physical barriers to implantation : IUD Loop, Copper T-etc.
Q. 10. Define the following :
(a) Population (b) Ecesis (c) Community retrogression (d) Community (e) Antagonism
Ans. (a) Population : It is a group of individuals of any kind of organism or species.
(b) Community : All the population of a given area together form a complex unit called as community Or biotic community.
(c) Ecesis : Establishment of a species in a new habitat on reaching thereby dispersal or migration is known as ecesis.
(d) Antagonism : An association Of two organisms which is harmful to one of them is called
(e) Community Retrogression : The reversal of ecological succession due to disturbance in some sera-I Stage is called community retrogression, e.g., destruction of grass by over grazing
Q. 11. Write a short note on chipko movement.
Ans. Chipko : It is movement initially meant for protecting trees but now meant for preservation of environment including habitat and wildlife. Chipko movement was born in March 1973 in Gopesh war in Chamoli district when tress were not allowed to be cut by village folk by hugging the first near village Mandal, then Rampur Phata and in 1974 near village Reni (led by Gaura Devi). The movement has two leaders, Chandi Prasad Bhatt of Gopeshwar and sunder Lal Bahuguna of Silyara in Tehri region. A similar movement was Undertaken by Paudurang Hegde in the south. It is known as Chipko movement. It aims at Uniso (conservation), belesu (growth-plantation) and balasu (rational use). Silent valley of kerala was also saved through public agitation setting up of hydroelectric project in nature forest area.
Q. 12. What is meant by •population explosion?’ Discuss the Indian Scenario.
Ans. Population Explosion: There has been reduction in doubling time of global human population. In 20th century, human population grown much faster then ever before Between 1950-1990. in just 40 years population crossed 5 billion mark with current addition of about 92 million every year or to say, adding new Mexico every year. In year 2000, world population was 6.3 billion and it is predicted to grow four in next 100 years. This unprecedented growth of human population at an alarming rate is referred to as population Explosion. It is causing severe resource depletion and environmental degradation Our resources like land, water, fossil fuels. minerals, etc., are limited and due to over exploitation, these resources are being exhausted.
Indian Scenario : India is second most popuIous country of world with one billion people. If current growth rate continues, it will have 1.63 billion people by 2050 and will become most populous country surpassing China. So, we are heading for very serious ramifications of
population explosion problem. So, we have the resources and provisions for feeding, housing,
educating and employing all those people being added every year.
If we look at population statistics of our country we find that in just 35 years after independence we added another India in terms of population. On 11th May, 2000, we became 1 billion and now we can say that every 6th person in this world is an Indian.
Q. 13. Write aims and objectives of ‘Family Welfare Programmes’. Discuss their implementation in detail.
Ans. Aims and Objectives of Family Welfare Programmes : Basic objective of ‘ family welfare programme is to promote well being (social, mental and physical) of people. Basic of a family welfare programme are aims and objectives as follows :
1. Family Planning: This programme provide educational and medical services which help couples to choose their family size. Such programmes gives sex education and information on methods of birth control. Condom and birth control pills are distributed by government free of cost.
2. Education : It is prime need of human beings. An educated man understands need of welfare and differentiate between right and wrong. Educated person contributes to development of nation. Books are distributed in school and ‘old age’ education centres are also established by government.
3. Health Facilities : These are given in form of hospitals to treat diseases. Immunisation of children against smallpox, polio, cholera, etc., isdone. Pulse polio programme is held on regular basis by government.
4. Civic Amenities : These like clean and hygienic environments, should be provided to people. Parks should be developed near localities. Germ free clean water is also provided. Mark 2 hand pumps are planted by government to provide water.
Q. 14. Write short notes on environment and human health.
Ans. Environment and Human Health: All living-beings are greatly influenced by the surrounding around them. They are influenced physically, mentally and socially also. Since the surrounding in which they live is the environment, therefore each Of the environmental element influences them. Hence, the air, water and, forests, minerals and energy make impact on them. Similarly the factors like family structure, housing, sanitation facilities, also affect their physical and mental health. The stress and strain of earning livelihood, social and economic support
systems and the psychological bent of mind also influence their health. It is a well-known fact that the environment directly affects the human-beings Consequently, better the quality of environment, better will be the health of mankind. If the environment is favourable, people can enjoy life to utmost pleasure. However, if the environment is Polluted, it will diminish the human efficiency, will affect his/her health and will make them susceptible to illness also.
Although the environment is competent in itself to prevent and control the diseases generated yet the occurrence of diseases from it influence human health. While an enormous study can be made in this regard; yet keeping the syllabus in view, we shall restrict ourselves to the following issues only :
1. Air quality and human health
2. Water quality and human health
3. Energy and human health
4. Industrialization and human health
5. Urbanization and human health.
Q. 15. Write short notes on water quality and human health.
Ans. Water Quality and Human Health : Water quality has also deteriorated considerably now. It is mainly due to sewage disposal, industrial effluents, agricultural discharges (i.e., fertilizers, pesticides, etc.). The following happenings are eye-opener in this regard.
1. The Minamata bay epidemic caused several deaths in Sweden. Tragedy was the consequence of consumption of Hg-contaminated fish by the people. Average Hg-concentration in fishes was about 50 ppm.
2. The Minamata epidemic also occurred in Japan. It was due to mercury that entered into natural water through effluents from paper and pulp industry, batteries and high intensity street lamp industries, etc.
3. The Yamuna river has almost turned into an open sewer (or drain) due to industrial effluents and sewage discharged into it.
4. The presence of excessive ‘fluoride’ in water has taken a large population in grip of fluorosis. Fluoride-rich water from wells have caused endemic fluorosis in many parts of Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, U.P., Rajasthan, etc. Prolonged intake of fluoride-containing water causes following health problems.
(a) stiffens the bone joints, specially of spinal cord.
(b) mottling of teeth.
(c) outward bending of legs from the knees i.e., knock-knee syndrome.
(d) crippling and paralysis.
Other human health problems are caused due to mixing of Hg, lead and other metals. Their details are similar to as explained in preceding article.
Q. 16. What is ‘value education’? Discuss concept of it with the help of suitable examples.
Ans. It refers to education that includes development of ideals, beliefs or norms which a society or large majority as society members hold. It provides guiding principles of life which are conducive to one’s physical, mental and social health. It gives light in which a person can see that what right for him and what is not, e,.g environmental education may be made value based
process. Principles of ecology and fundamentals of environment can really help create a sense of duty to care for earth and Its resources and to manage them in a sustainable wav so that future generation can t 90 Inherit safe and clean planet to live on. Value education, is therefore, a very vital and powerful of education. Spiritual values highlight the principles of self-restraint self contentment, and love toward humanity
Q. 17. What do you mean by AIDS?
Ans. AIDS : AIDS, the Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome is not a hereditary disease but is caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). HIV from an infected person can pass to a normal person through blood contand generally during unprotected sex with infected person and sharing needles or syringes contaminated with small quantities of blood from HIV positive person. HIV can also pass from infected mothers to their babies during pregnancy delivery or breast feeding.
Q. 18. Write a short note on woman and child welfare.
Ans. Woman and Child Welfare : Women and children are very important identities of human society. The adult women are the creators of next generation and the children are the hopes of future. Therefore, they should be cared to utmost degree. No doubt, their welfare is being looked after by societies and families. However, this is just not sufficient. In this regard, governments also devise and implement various welfare measures for them. Some of the woman and child welfat measures are listed as follows :
1. Sarwa Sikhra Abhiyan
2. Balika Samridhi Yojana
3. Indira Mahila Yojana
4. Programme of Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas
5. Mahila Samridhi Yojana
6. Integrated Child Development Services
7. Employment and Income Generating Training-cum-Production Centres
8. Rashtriya Mahila Kosh
9. Day-Care Centres or Crutches for Children
10. Short Stay Home for Women and Girls.
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