BBA Environmental Studies Notes Biogeographical Regons in India
BBA Environmental Studies Notes Biogeographical Regons in India :-
Q. 1. Give an account on biogeographical regions India.
Ans. Biogeographical Regions in India: India exhibits a vast biodiversity due to inclusion elements of all the three biogeographic realms, i.e., Afro-tropical, Euro-Asian and Indo-Malayan biogeographic realms. There are a wide range of varieties of habitats and climatic condition presents. India is one of the eight, vavasory centres of high crop genetic diversity or characterized by having a high proportion of endormc species in its vegetation.
Time to time India was divided into different regions by scientists. Recently Botanical Survey of India (BSI) in 1991 has divided India in nine biogeographical regions, based on floral diversity.
1. North Western Himalayas : Outer ranges covered by subtropical dry evergreen, subtropical pine forests and moist temperate zone forests. Inner ranges of mountains have dry temperate forests, moist alpine shrub or dry alpine shrub, etc.
2. Eastern Himalaya : Eastern Himalaya are wet or warm, rich m biodiversity. Lower slopes possess tropical semi-evergreen forests with patches of subtropical broad leaved hill forests.
3. Western Arid Region: It includes sparse vegetation on an fairly district habitats like sandy plains and dunes, rocky habitat, saline depressions gravelly plains.
4. Gangetic Plain: Gangetic plain starts fromæastern Rajasthan through Uttarpradesh, Uttarakhand to Bihar or Bengal. Gangetic agriculture rich land. Natural vegetation consists pf tropical moist deciduous forests and tropical moist deciduous forests. The south east end of gangetic plain merges with literal and mangrove regions of sunderban.
5. Eastern India : It includes Arunanchal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, etc. Tropical wet evergreen forests, tropical moist deciduous forest, subtropical broad leaved hill forests, subtropical pine forests are prominent. Nagaland a kharia hills have many endemic plants such as Napénthes or pitcher plant. This region has richest bamboo forest, orchids, tree ferns, aroids, etc.
6. Deccan Plateau : It includes south of Vindhyachal hills and Eastern and Western Ghats. Tropical thorn forests, tropical dry deciduous forests in northern, central or southern parts or plateau are prominent. Moist deciduous forests are common in Andhra Pradesh, M.P or Orissa.
7. Western Ghats : It is rich in tropical moist deciduous forests, tropical semi-evergreen forests and tropical wet evergreen forests in Karnataka or Kerala. High altitudes maintain wet temperate forests and Nilgiris have broad leaved hill forests. It has rich endemic flora also.
8. Eastern Ghats : This area is rich in tropical dry deciduous and thorn forest. A small northern area bordering Orissa possesses moist deciduous forests.
9. Andaman or Nicobar Islands : Andaman are continental fragments while Nicobar are volcanic. The Island have rich biodiversity with tropical wet evergreen, semi-evergreen to moist deciduous forests.
Forest and wildlife department of government of India divided India into ten biogeographic zones and the fauna diversity in 1993. These are as follows :
- Trans-Himalaya : Ladakh (J&K) and Lahul spiti (H.F.)
- Himalaya: North west, west, central, eastern.
- Desert : Kutch-Gujarat, Thar-Rajasthan.
- Semi-arid : Punjab, Gujarat, Rajasthan.
- Western Ghats: Coastal plain and mountam of Maharastara, Kerala and Karnataka.
- Deccan Peninsula: Deccan plateau, south central plate,aU, north eastern Dlateau,
Chota Nagpur, Central Highland.
- Gangetic Plain : Upper gangetic plain, lower gangetic plain-
- Marine Coasts: West coast, east coast.
- North East : Brahmaputra valley, Assam hills.
- Indian Islands : Andaman, Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands.
Q. 2. Write an essay on bio diversity.
Ans. Biodiversity : Life on earth has constantly evolved for last four billion years to form the present living world. World convention for biological diversity, has recommended the following definition of biodiversity in UNEP 1992.
“Biodiversity or biological diversity means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, interalia, terrestrial, marine and other ecosystem and the ecological complex of which they are part, this includes diversity in within species, between species and of ecosystem.”
The present definition of biodiversity is “The intrinsically-inbuilt plus the externally imposed variability in and among living organisms existing in terrestrial, marine and other ecosystem at a specific period of time”.
Biodiversity is commonly considered at three different levels :
1. Genetic Diversity: Genes are the biochemical substances passed from one generation to the other and determine physical or biochemical characters of offsprings. Variation occur .in meiosis stage. The result of variation is mostly visible such on colour, size, etc; it may be invisible also e.g., susceptibility to disease. The genetic variability produces new breed of crops. domestic animals, etc, to allow the species to adapt the changed condition.
2. Species Diversity : A group of organism genetically so similar that they can interbreed and produce fertile offspring is known as species. ‘l’he diversity in species is measured in term of the total number of species within discrete geographical boundaries.
3. Ecosystem Diversity : The functional relationship among the communities and their environment are frequently complex, but they are the mechanising ecological processes such as water cycle, soil formation, nutrient cycling and energy flow. Two different phenomenon are there of ecosystem diversity.
(a) The variety of ecosystem found within a certain biogeographical or political boundary.
(b) The variety of species within different ecosystems more diverse ecosystems contain more species.
Biological diversity occurred within all habitants as genetic diversity allows life to adapt to the environment. However, species are not spread evenly over the earth and biological diversity is greater in same areas than in Others.
Tropical forests among the terrestrial system have a great number of species. Tropical forest covers only 7% of earth’s land surface, yet they are estimated to contain at least 50% of’ all species Miltermeier and Werner in 1990 recognised that a very small number of countries in the tropics possess a large fraction of the world’s special diversity. They called them as megadiversity countries. There are 12 megadiversity countries which together hold more than 70% of world’s species diversity. These are Mexico, Columbia Equador, Peru, Brazil, Zaire, Madagaskar, China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Australia.
IUCN Categories of Species
International Union for ‘Conservation of Natural resources (IUCN) on the basis Of present part distribution, decline in number of population in course of time, abundance, quality of natural habitats, biology and potential values of species made some categories of species forth’ purpose of conservation. These are : .
(a) Endangered (E)
(b) Rare (R)
(c) out of danger (O)
(d) Vulnerable (V)
(e) Threatened (T)
(f) Intermediate (I)
Conservation of Biodiversity
The biodiversity is conserved on moral and practical reasons. Biodiversity supports human survival through food and industry. The fundamental social ethical, cultural and economic values of biodiversity have been recognized in most of the human discipline from religion to science.
In India the conservation ethic was embeded the sylvan surrounding of the Ashrams of our sages, which were the seats of learning in the country’s ancient part. the love and regard for flora and fauna is a part of Indian culture. A rhym from yajurveda involve universal peace.
“Let therebe peace of air, peace of earth, peace of water, peace of plants and peace of trees.This Vedic rhym reveals how responsive the Indian sensibility was. They loved everyone in nature and wild life.”
Estimation of Biodiversity
The biodiversity is measured in generally three ways.
(a) Alpha diversity : Diversity measured within a unit area e.g. a lake.
(b) Beta diversity : Diversity gradient measured by sampling across an ecotone e.g., from savana to forest.
(c) Gamma diversity : Rate at which diversity changes with increasing area.
Alpha diversity is the most frequently used conservation, as it is site based and enable comparison of alternative areas and the mapping distribution of diversity on a regional scale.
Biodiversity in India
The Indian landmass is bounded by Himalayas in north. Bey of Bengal in east and Arabian sea in west. It has three well defined regions
(a) The trans Himalayan mountain zone including the north Oastern hill ranges.
(b) The Indogangetic plains.
(c) The peninsula including the eastern and western ghats of the Vindya-Satpura ranges.
According tb world biogeographical classification India has two realms the Palaeorelic of Indo-Malayan.
Three biomass, i.e., tropical humid forests, tropical dry deciduous forest and warm or semi deserts are found.
Himalaya represent a wast biodiversity of plants and animals. Himalayas open southward route of migration or colonization. At its eastern end through Assam gate Chinese or Malayan elements enter and from west Palaearctic Ethiopian elements enter. The Himalaya act as two way highway linking south east Asia to west Africa. Himalaya also deflect rain bearing clouds
India has immense biodiversity. The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) classified the country in ten regions:
(i) Trans Himalaya,
(ii) Indian desert,
(iii) Western ghats,
(iv) Gangetic plains,
(vii) Semi arid,
(viii) Deccan peninsula,
(ix) North east India
India is one of the 12 identified mega bio-diversity centres. It has two of the 18 identified hot spots the eastern Himalaya and western ghats.
It has 45000 plants species, i.e., about 7% of world’s flora. 4,700 species of flower plants arc endemic among which 2,532 species are in Himalayas and 1,782 species in peninsular India.
India is also considered one of the world’s 12 centres of origin Of cultivated plants. India’s rich germ plasm resources includes 51 species of cereals of millets, 104 species of fruits, 27 species of spices 01 condiments, 55 species of vegetables or pulses, 24 species of fibre crops, 12 species of oil seeds or various wild strains of tea, coffee, tobacco or sugarcane. A number of species of wild plants are found in western to Himalaya. Malabar coast, west peninsula, Gangetic plains, north east India and Indian plains. The, ancient practice of domesticating animals resulted in diverse live stock, poultry, etc. India’s 8 breeds of buffalo represent the entire range of genetic diversity of buffaloes in world. 26 breeds of cattle, 40 of sheep, 20 of goats, 8 of camel, 6 of horse, 2 of donkeys and 18 types of poultry are also found in India.
Q.3 Give an account of causes of extinction of species.
Ans. 1. Hunting: Hunting is of three types :
(i) Sport Hunting : Killing animals for recreation
(ii) Subsistence Hunting : Killing animals for safety and food.
(iii) Commercial Hunting : Killing animals for food, fur and other parts, e.g., Elephant for ivory, jaguar, snow leopard, tiger and cheetah for fur, musk deer for musk, whale for blubber and whale bone. Population of Blue Whale was 200,000 in 1950 and 1000 in 1990, that of Black Rhino 65000 in 1970 and 5000 in 1986. Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has disappeared from India. Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) was the most numerous bird in the beginning of nineteenth century (with several million animals in one flock). Because of their hunting for food they have become extinct with last pigeon dying in Cincinnati Zoo in 1914. President Roosevelt of U.S.A. ordered the destruction of Wolf and Puma from Kaibab plateau in order to save Deer herds. Deer population increased chereafter that destroyed vegetation and converted the area into desert, 100 mammals, 88 birds, numerous orchids and medicinal plants have become extinct in the past 2000 years. 25000 plant species, 1000 vertebrates and 10% of invertebrate species are in danger of extinction.
2. Destruction of Habitats: Natural habitats of wildlife has been destroyed due to
(i) Establishment of new human settlements, croplands and mining areas.
(ii) Deforestation due tojhuming, felling of trees for timber/firewood, fire and overgrazing.
(iii) Acid rain damages forests/grasslands. Pollution of water bodies kills aquatic plants and animals. DDT use reduced the population of several birds like Bald Eagle, Brown Pelican, Peregrine Falcon and Osprey.
(iv) Building of roads and rails through ecologically fragile areas.
(v) Dams/reservoirs destroy habitats of wildlife and block spawning and migration of certion fishes.
(vi) Filling or drainage of wetlands.
3. Cleanliness : Vultures and kites feed on carcases. Since, the carcases are being buried or burnt now, the population of largest flying bird, California Candor (Gymnogyps california)llts) has started declining.
4. Migratory Routes : Changes in settling areas and routes of migratory animals, result in their going astray and perishing.
5. Exotic Species: Exotic species or species introduced from outside (often requiring specific environment) produce ecological imbalanee due to removal of biological control’ (i) Eupatorium odoratum replaced Tectona grandis in N.E. India. (ii) Lantana camara in forests of U.P. and M.P. (iii) Parthenium hysterophorus (introduced in 1956) has replaced herbs and shrubs in open spaces. (iv) In 1859, an Australian farmer imported 1 dozen pairs of European rabbits for game. In six years the population was 22 million. It was 750 million in 1930 causing destruction of all types of vegetation. Population was reduced in 1950s through viral infection. Dodo of Mauritius became extinct because its eggs laid on ground were devoured by introduced pigs. Goat introduction in Galapagos islands in 1957 destroyed tortoise population by 1962 due to consumption of vegetation. Goats and rabbits introduced in Pacific and Indian Ocean islahds have destroyed habitats of several reptiles, birds and plants. (v) Chestnut Blight (Endothia parasitica) from China has damaged Chestnut Tree in coastal areas of U.S.A. (vi) Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has occupied many wetlands.
6. Economic Considerations : Scarce commodities are always in demand, e.g., exotic meat/fish, hides/skins, rare animals/plants. Monkey-eating Eagle, Pithecophaga jefferyi, of Philippines is on verge of extinction because of its capturing for Zoos and stuffing.
Q. 4. Describe bio-magnification.
Ans. Bio-magnification : Industrial wastes are usually released into water contain highly toxic substances like lead, copper, zinc, cadmium cyanides, arsenic, salts/acids/alkalies etc.
All these substance can cause harm to health of human being, plants microbes and animals. They may reach directly to, human beings through contaminated food/water or indirectly through plants and animals. The concentration of toxic substance increases at each trophic level of food chain. This is called as bio-magnification or biological concentration, e.g., river water may have very low concentration of DDT but carnivorous fish in the river may very high concentration of DDT which is harmful for man and make fish unfit for eating. These toxic substance also show adverse effect on photosynthesis activity of phytoplanktons.
(i) Birds may die if they consume toxic water.
(ii) Toxicity of water may influence the nervous system of animals.
(iii) Chemicals like 2, 4D may cause cancer.
Q. 5. Give an account on ex-situ conservation.
Ans. Ex-situ Conservation: The conservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats is called ex-situ conservation. The institution for ex-situ conservation are forestry commission, botanical gardens, agricultural research centers. There are about 1500 botanical gardens of which 800 are active in plant conservation.
Field gene bank: Areas of land having growing perennials, long lived plants which are difficult to be conserved in nature. These take decades to produce seeds. Hence the area mantains widest range of genetic diversity.
(i) Require large area.
(ii) Difficulty in protection from natural disaster and diseases.
(i) Require small space for storage.
(ii) Economic method.
(iii) Easier method for storage.
Storage of micro-propagation from plant sustained through tissue culture is also a valuable method. The tissue can be reared from pollen, spores and seeds plantlets can be stored at low temperature for longer duration, i.e., Cryopreservation.
(ii) Regular subculturing needed.
(iii) Labour intensive.
(iv) In 1976 NBPGR has been established by ICAR for management of plantgenetic resources
Q. 6. What do you understand by “hotspots of biodiversity”. Name and briefly describe, along with vital signs, the two hotspots of biodiversity that extend into India.
Ans. Hotspots of Biodiversity: Hotspots are areas that are extremely rich in species’ have high endemism and are under constant threat. Among the 25 hotspots of the world, two are found in India extending into neighbouring countries. The two hotspots in India are
1. Eastern Himalayas : Area comprises Nepal, Bhutan and neighbouring state of northern India, along with a continuous sectors of Yunnan province in southwest China. They can be considered tropical forests since, they occur largely within climatic tropics. The Eastern Himalayas display on ultravaried topography, a factor that fosters species diversity and endemnism. It is believed that forest cover has reduced from 3,40,000 km2 to km2 . Despite this loss, north-eastern region home to some botauical rarities.; One of’ these in sapria Himalayana, a parasitic angiosperm that has been sighted only twice since, 1836. Numerous primitive angiosperm families found in this region include Magnoliaccae, Euptelea, etc.
2. Western Ghats : About 1,600 endemics (40% of total number of endemics) are found in a 17,000 km2 strip of forest along seawards side of western ghats in Maharashtra, Karnataka,
Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Forest tracts upto 500 m in elevation, comprising 1/5 of entire forest
expanse, are mostly evergreen while those in 500-1500 metres range are semi-evergreen. There are two main centres of diversity, agastyamali in hills and silent valley.
Q. 7 What do you mean by value of biodiversity? Explain consumptive use and productive use of biodiversity.
Ans : All species, communities and ecosystems have some economic values. These can be understood with the help of these examples .
Example 1. We consider case of an animal ‘goat’. Its market value is mainly for its meat. If a large number of goats are available for sale, the quantity of meat that can be harvested (obtained) from them will be too much, which can be exported to earn foreign currency. Thus, goat has its economic value.
Example 2. We consider various species of flower plants. They can be grown for not only selling but for other purposes also. The flowers also have eco-value, attraction for tourism, selling and export value, etc.
Hence, value of biodiversity may be expressed in different sense. These may be :
1. Consumptive and productive value.
2. Social and ethical value.
3. Aesthetic and option value.
Consumptive; and productive use values : Each product has some useful value. The useful value may be expressed in different ways. Ways depend upon manner of use of products. Some products have their values when consumed, and some have their values when derived in other forms, e.g., Direct value : Daily use purpose vegetables and fuel wood are purchased for some money (value) before consumption. These values are referred to as consumptive use values. Such values are ‘direct values’ of the product.
Indirect (non-consumptive) Values
1. Recreational value
2. Educational value3. Eco-tourism value
4. Medical research value5. Waste disposal value.
Indirect (ecological benefit) Values
1. Climate control value 3. Protection value.
2. Soil formation value
Q. 8. Define biosphere and name its sub-divisions.
Ans. Biosphere: It is an area in which life on earth is possible. It includes all living organisms and their physical environments. It is a combination of all ecosystems that exist on earth.
The biosphere has been divided into
(i) Hydrosphere: It includes all the aquatic portions of earth like streams, rivers, ponds, oceans, and all water bodies.
(ii) Lithosphere : It includes the crust, the solid portion of earth like land masses, rocks mountains, minerals of the earth.
(iii) Atmosphere : It forms a gaseous envelope over hydrosphere and lithosphere.
All living organisms require inorganic substances which -they obtain from these sub-divisions, e.g. they get water from hydrosphere, obtain essential minerals from hydrosphere and Lithosphere and gases like 02 , C02 , N2 etc. from atmosphere. The term biosphere was first used by Edward Suess (1957). According to Hutchinson (1970) biosphere is that part of the earth in which life exists (the envelope of life).
Q. 9. Give the name of five hot spots of India.
Ans. The name of five hot spots of India are given below :
1. Western ghats
2. Little rann of kutch
3. Gir forest
4. Eastern himalaya
5. Nilgiri hills.
Q. 10 Give the name five hot spots of world.
Ans. The name of five hot spots of world are given below :
1. Gulf of Guinea
2. North Indian ocean
3. Red sea and gulf of Aden
4. Western Caribbean
5. Mountain of central Asia.
Q. 11. What do you understand by hot spots?
Ans. Hot spots : The biodiversity of a particular place when comes under threat, it is called hot spot or sensitive spot. Hot spot cover less than two per cent of the planet’s land surface but contain more than 50 per cent of its terrestrial biological diversity. In these hot spots the ecosystem are at greatest risk. Indian sub-continent has unique geographic portion, distinct physiographic, edatohic and climatic zone and gradients.
This subcontinent abodes a very rich and diverse flora and fauna with high percentage of endemism. Out of 25 most important global hot spots of biodiversity two are present in India, i.e., eastern himalaya and western ghats.
Q. 12. Give the name of five museums of India.
Ans. The name of five measums of India are given below :
1. National Museum of Natural History, New Delhi.
2. Forest Museum, Andaman Nicobar.
3. Prince of Water Museum, Mumbai.
4. Maharaja Sawai Man Singh-Il Museum, Jaipur.
5. Indian Museum, Kolkata.
Q. 13. What is biosphere reserve? Give the name of five biosphere reserves of India.
Ans. Biosphere Reserve
A Biosphere reserve is a specified area imwhich multiple use of the land is permitted by dividing it into zones, each for a particular activity.
The biosphere reserve is divided into three zones which are given below
(a) Core zone : Where human activity is not allowed.
(b) Buffer zone : Limited human activity is allowed.
(c) Manipulation zone : Many human activities are allowed.
The name of five biosphere reserves of India are given below :
l. Nandadevi, – Uttaranchal
2. Sunderbans, – West Bengal
3, Gulf of mannar, – Tamil Nadu
4. Pachmarhi, – Madhya Pradesh
5. Nilgiri, – Karnataka.
Q. 14. Give the name of five zoological parks of India.
Ans. The name of five zoological parks of India are given below :
1. Indira Gandhi Zoological Park, Vishakhapatnam, A.P.
2. Nandan Kanan Zoological Park, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa.
3. Gandhi Zoological Park, Gwalior, M.P.
4. Padmaja Nadu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, West Bengal.
5. State Zoological Park, Kohima, Nagaland.
Q. 15. Give the name of five botanical gardens of India.
Ans. The name of five botanical gardens of India are given below :
1. Indian Botanical Garden, Sibpur, Kolkata.
2. Lloyd Botanical Garden, Darjeeling.
3. National Botanical Garden, Lucknow now known as National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI).
4. Vrindavan Gardens, Mysore, Karnataka.
5. Botanical Garden, Ooty, Tamil Nadu.
Q. 16. Comment on energy flow and recycling of materials in biosphere.
Ans. Energy Flow: All organisms on earth are linked by energy and nutrient relationships. The life on earth depends on the availability of energy and nutrients. The nutrients are derived from abiotic component of the ecosystem and energy is ultimately supplied by the sun.
The nutrients flow from non living to living organisms and then again return to non living in the form of waste-products or dead bodies.
Functioning of biosphere requires a constant flow of light energy from sun to the earth. It’s movement is always unidirectional, i.e., from sun to earth, autotrophs to animals, animals to animals of higher trophic level, organisms to microbes, dissipation as heat.
More than one hundred elements are present on earth but some are needed in the formation of protoplasm. These are called essential elements, these are provided by earth, hence are called as biogenetic nutrients or biogeochemicals. Circulation or exchange of biogenetic nutrients between the living and. the non living world is called cycling of matter or biogeochemical cycle. Nutrients occur in two pools :
(i) Reservoir pool : e.g., Metal phosphates, N2 gas of atmosphere.
(ii) Cycling pool : It is pool of biogenetic nutrients which is repeatedly exchanged between biotic and abiotic components of biosphere.
Q. 17. Describe carbon cycle.
Ans. Carbon Cycle : Carbon is important constituent of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, etc.
(i) As C02 of atmosphere. (ii) As carbonates in the rocks, in the earth’s crust. (iii) As carbon in fossil fuels like-coal and petroleum.
Fixation of Carbon
(i) C02 enters the green plants (photosynthesis) and then to various organisms of different trophic levels.
Release of Carbon
(i) As CO during respiration. (ii) Decomposition of dead organic material by microbes-. (iii) Burning of wood and fossil fuel. (iv) By volcanic activity and dissolution of carbonate rocks.
Q. 18. What do you understand by biodiversity act of India (2002).
Ans. Biodiversity Act of India, 2002
The Biodiversity act was passed by Indian parliament in 2002 and received ascent of the president on 5th Feb., 2003. It has 12 Chapters. This act is for the conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its components and fair and equal sharing of the benefits coming out of the use of biological resources, knowledge and for all other connected purposes.
Q.19. Define the following terms :
(a) Endemic species.
(b) Threatened species.
(c) Endangered species.
(d) Vulnerable species.
(e) Rare species.
(f) Intermediate species.
(a) Endemic Species: Endemic species is a species which is found in a particular natural habitat beyond which it is unknown. India has a large number of endemic species, e.g., Elettaria cardamomum, Ficus religiosa, Butea monosperma.
(b) Threatened Species : A threatened species is the one that is liable to become extinct if not. allowed to realise full biotic potential by providing protection from exotic species/human exploitation/habitat deterioration/depletion of food.
(c) Endangered Species (E) : The species is facing danger of imminent extinction due to (i) Reduction in habitat (ii) Abundance of predator/pathogen/pollutant (iii) Very few in number, e.g., Blue Whale, largest lemur Idri idri of Madagascar, Asiatic Wild Ass (Asinus hemionus khur in Rann of Kutch), Lion Tailed Macaque (m Dipterocarpus forests of South India). The number of Lion Tailed Macaque is only 195 because of destruction of habitat, poaching for flesh and capturing.
(d) Vulnerable Species (V, Depleted Species) : Abundant population at present but threatened with depletion in number due to some factor/factors, e.g., DDT in bird population. Addax nasomaculatus, a member Of Antelope family, was once common from Egypt to Mauritania. It has extinct from Egypt, Libya, Algeria and Sudan. and Mali where it is hunted by nomads for its meat. Presently it is found in Mauritc Consequently, the number of Addax antelope continues to decline.
(e) Rare Species (R) : They are species with naturally small populations, either localised or thinly scattered, which are always at risk from pests/pathogens/predators/ exotic species. Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) of Himalayas is a rere species becauses of poaching and loss of habitat. Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monochus sehauinslandii) is found only in “six small islands. Great Indian Bustarc (Ardcotis nigriceps) is a rare species of birds found in parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan due to destruction of natural habitat and poaching.
(f) Intermediate Species : The species are in danger of extinction but the reason is not known, e.g., 3-banded Armadillo of Brazil, Short Eared Rabbit of Sumatra, Mexican Prairie Dog. As information is gathered about the status, the species is placed in one of the above three categories. For example, Snow Leopard (Leo uncia) was listed as indeterminated in 1968 and endangered in%1970.
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