Business Communication Method of Data Collection Guidelines for Effective Listening
Business Communication Method of Data Collection Guidelines for Effective Listening :–
Most Important Short Questions Answer
Q. 1. Give guidelines for effective listening.
Ans. Guidelines to Effective Listening Guidelines to effective listening are as follows :
- Listen patiently to what the other person has to say even though you may believe it to be wrong or irrelevant. Indicate simple acceptance (not necessarily agreement) nodding your head or perhaps interjecting an occasional “um-hm”, or “I see”.
- Try to understand the feelings the person is expressing as well as the intellectual content. Most of us have difficulty in talking clearly about our feelings. So careful attention is required.
- Restate the person’s feelings, briefly but accurately. At this stage you simply serve as a mirror and encourage the other person to continue talking. Occasionally, make summary responses such as you think you are in a dead-end job, but in doing so keep your tone neutral and try not to lead the person to your pet conclusions.
- Allow time for the discussions to continue without interruption and try to separate the conversation from more official communication of company plans. That is, do not make the conversation any more “authoritative” than if already is by virtue of your position in the organization.
- Avoid direct questions and arguments about facts. Refrain from saying, “That is just not so”, “Hold on for a minute, Let’s look at the facts”, or “Prove it” You may want to review the evidence later, but a review is irrelevant to how the person feels now.
- When the other person does touch upon a point you do want to know more about simply repeated statements as a question. For instance, if he remarks, ‘Nobody can break even on his expense account’, You can probe by replying, “You say no one breaks even on expenses”? With this encouragement he will probably expand on his previous statement.
- Listen for what is not said evasions for pertinent points or perhaps too ready agreement with common cliches. Such an commission may be a clue to a bothersome fact the person wishes were not true.
- If the other person appears genuinely to want your view point, be honest in your reply. But at the listening stage try to limit the expression of your views, since these may condition or repress what the other person says.
- Don’t get emotionally involved yourself. Try simply to understand first and differ evaluation until later.
- Listen “between the lines”. A person does not always put everything that is important into Words. The changing tones and volume of his voice may have a meaning. So may his facial expression’ the gestures he makes with his hands and the movements of his body.
- Better results can be achieved if the superior gives less emphasis to explaining and more
emphasis to listening.
Q. 2. Discuss the various problems in effective listening.
Ans. Problems in Effective Listening : 1. A major barrier to effective listening is the tendency
of the listener to evaluate in terms of his, rather than the speaker’s frame of reference. The listener’s Prejudices and beliefs used by the words or the person of the speaker, partially or completely, inhibit any exchange of information between the two parties. Each party is essentially talking to and about himself rather than to the other person.
2. Most people can think a great deal faster than a person can speak. The mind often wonders too far and loses the speaker completely. A good listener does let his mind drift away from what the speaker has to say.
3. People sometimes listen for words rather than ideas and may even attempt to memorize the
specific sequences of words used by the speaker.
4. People may reduce their listening capacity but talking detailed notes. A better approach is to listen carefully and then write down only the leading ideas.
5. A bad listener may rationalise his habit and express some reasons for not listening but they are Often used to soothe the conscience of the lazy listener.
6. Pseudo-listeners make the speaker believe that they are listening or have listened. An eager and intense look and a periodic comment or a question, is the usual technique.
Q. 3. What are the types of listening? How can listening be made effective?
Ans. Types of Listening : Listening is of several types depending upon the speaker, the listener, the purpose and content. Listening involves discrimination, evaluation, appreciation and reaction.
1. Discrimination : When the listener differentiates between parts of the speaker’s message it is called discriminative listening.
e.g., While listening to his subordinates a manager differentiates between the important and unimportant points of their grievance and takes action accordingly. The important point is taken seriously and the insignificant part is ignored.
2. Evaluative Listening : Listening is said -to be evaluative when the listener analyses the
evidence and reaches a conclusion. A good listener comes to a conclusion on the basis of complete information.
3. Appreciative Listening : Here the listener shows by words or body language that he likes some part of a speech and agrees with the speaker. Listener’s appreciation and applause improves that confidence of the speaker and boosts his morale.
4. Empathic Listening : When the listener puts himself in the position of the speaker it is called empathic listening. A tactful manager allows the speaker to give vent to his pent up emotions and shows his feeling. Such listening develops healthy human relations.
Guidelines for Effective Listening : There are several barriers to effective listening. Such as noise, bias, focus on the speakers’s personality, poor speaking style, too much information, talking while listening, taking notes, etc. Some tips to remove these barriers and to ensure effective listening are given below :
1. Stop talking as it is impossible to talk and listen at the same time.
2. Fight off all distractions,
3. Be patient and let the speaker say whatever needs to be said.
4. Be emphatic and appreciate the emotion behind the speakers words.
5. Be fully attentive.
6. Create a positive listening environment.
7. Use feed back mechanism to check understanding.
8. Withhold judgement until you have heard fully.
9. Ask questions and seek clarifications where ever necessary.
10. React to the message, not to the person.
Q. 4. Give the differences between oral and written communication.
Ans. Difference between Oral and Written (non-verbal) Communication
|S.No.||Basic of Differenc||Oral Communication||Written Communication|
|1.||Way of expression||Way of expression Message is conveyed through spoken words.||Message is conveyed through written words.|
|2.||Presence of parties||Presence of both the parties is essential.||Presence of both the parties is not essential.|
|3.||Record||It does not provide a record for future reference.||It provides a permanent record for future.|
|4.||Effectiveness||It becomes more effective with the use of body language.||It is less effective as it lacks Dersonal touch.|
|5.||Secrecy||Message remains secret.||Message does not remain secret.|
|6.||Medium of communication||Face-to-face discussion, meetings, seminars, speeches, telephone, internet etc. are the main medium of oral communication||Letters, notices, bulletins, magazines etc, are the main of written communication.|
|7.||Feedback||Immediate feedback from the receiver of the message.||Delayed feedback from the receiver.|
|8.||Time and money||Less time consuming and economical.||More time consuming and expensive.|
|9.||Suitability||For short and simple messages.||For lengthy messages.|
|10.||Flexibility||More flexible as changes can be made according to the situation.||Low flexible as alternation cannot be possible.|
Q. 5. Who is audience? Discuss the various types of audience.
Ans. Audience : Generally, it is believed that one who listens, is audience but in the communication, audience is the person to whom a message is sent. In simple words, audience is the person to whom a message is sent. In simple words, audience is the receiver of the message.
Types of Audience : In a communication process, there may be five types of audience as under :
1. Initial Audience : The person who receives a message first and transmit it to others is known as initial audience. He is also known as “Carrier Audience.”
2. Gate Keeper Audience : The person who decides whether message should be delivered to the primary audience or not, is known as gate keeper audience. He is the person, who has the power to stop the message from reaching to the primary audience.
3. Primary Audience : He is the real person for whom the message is sent. He has the authority to express his reaction on the message. Primary audience has the power to accept or refuse the suggestions of the sender.
4. Secondary Audience : Secondary audience becomes active only afther the approval of message of primary audience. He may be asked to comment or to act on the message by the primary audience.
5. Watching Audience : Watching audience keeps an eye on the continuation between sender and primary audience. He has no power to stop the message or to act directly.
Q. 6. What are the main barriers of effective listening?
What is effective listening? Explain the barriers of effective listening.
Ans. Effective Listening : Effective listening is a skill where multiple senses are used to grasp messages. Effective listening is not just about using ‘the ears to hear but it also involves using Other senses such as the eyes to observe body language and capture any underlying messages. Barriers of Effective Listening: Main barriers of effective listening can be summarised as
1. Hearing Problem : Hearing disability is a barrier to effective listening. It is a physical problem and not mental. Number of such persons are generally very small in an organisation and it can be reduced or removed through treatment by the doctor.
2. Overload of Message : When the mind of listener is overloaded by the messages, then he does not easily absorb the message and is unable to understand it properly. If the message or statement is lengthy, illogical and not orderly arranged then it leads to ineffective listening.
3. Self-centred Attitude or Egotism : One of the common barriers of listening is egotism or self-centred attitude. Thinking that my own ideas are more important than others or “myself is always right” and the other is wrong is the major problem in the way of listening. Listening requires open mind but when mind is closed for the other person’s message, then there will be no listening.
4. Rapid Thoughts : The speaker talks about 125 words per minute whereas the listener can absorb information at a rate of 500 words per minute. This provide free time for the mind to divert to other matters than concentrating on the speaker’s message. That is why, we feel bored to hear the persons talking slowly.
5. Wrong Perceptions and Negative Emotions : Wrong perceptions also create interruption in the effective listening. We do not listen to what the other is saying but what we want to listen. We try to add, subtract or colour the message according to our own whims and wishes. Negative feelings like hatred, jealousy, illusion, anger etc. also communicate negative and opposite meaning. Thus, our pre-conceived ideas and perceptions hinder the listening process.
6. Cultural Diversity : Modern business organisations activities are spread over various regions and localities and the persons belonging to different communities and culture work in these organisation. Even if all of them use common language, yet their accent will differ because of cultural and local diversity. This is a barrier to listening.
7. Lack of Training : Listening is one of the greatest mindful activities which requires conscious work and practice to learn and master it. It requires patience to learn and master it. It requires patience of sitting passively, alertness, absorbing other person’s words with suspension of judgement for the time being. In our educational institutions, teachers teach how to read, write and speak better, but as far as listening is concerned Lea Iacocca’s observation is worth quoting, “1 only wish, I could find an institute that teaches people how to listen.”
Q. 7. Describe the importance of effective listening.
Ans. Importance of Effective Listening : Effective listening is an essential part Of communication process.
The ability to listen is an important skill for managers, because this skill helps them in performing their duties and responsibilities in an effective way.
According to Floyd J. James, “Less listening capaicty is a main source of origin of the problems related with the work at every level.”
Different studies show that workers spend 63% time in listening, 22% time in speaking, in writing and 4% in reading. Therefore, listening is an important function in a business organization. Importance of listening can be revealed as follows :
1. Increase Efficiency : Listening increases the overall efficiency of the workers. Listening attentively removes the chances of mistake and thus decrease the repetition of work and loss of time.
2. Helpful in Decision Making : Better policies and decisions can be made only through proper listening. If the management listen carefully to the views of their subordinates and co-workers, then it help them in deciding as to what policy would be suitable in their organization.
3. Establish Good Business Relations : When demands and grievances of workers are listened carefully and patiently by the higher authorities, then they become more co-operative and responsible. Listening help in building good relations with workers and create the feelings of importance, recognition and appreciation among the employees.
4. Listening Ensures Trust : Good listening indicates that the listener is honest and trusts on the speaker. Such a situation leads to free communication between them and inter-personal contact is immediately established.
5. Useful for Learning : Listening also proves helpful to get new ideas and opinions. Learning is so closely related with listening that one may almost say : No listening no learning. Thus, listening plays important role in enhancing the level of knowledge of the people,
6. Helpful in Finding the Real Meaning of the Message : With effective listening, a person can get the real meaning of the message. It helps in making the better decisions as the message received is of good quality.
7. Create Peaceful Environment : Listening about the feelings, ideas and suggestions of the workers can prove helpful in creating the peaceful environment in an organization. Listening patiently and calmly can reduce the anger and exciteness of the workers. Sensitive matters can be solved easily with the help of effective listening.
8. Provide Necessary Information : Necessary informations can only be adopted through effective listening. If a person makes no listening, then he become unknown to the circumstances. It affects his efficiency adversely.
Q. 8. Write a short note on body language.
What do you understand by body language.
Ans. Body Language : Human body and its various parts play an important role in communication.
The study of messages conveyed by body movements is known as body language or kinesis. Just a language uses symbols to convey meaning, our body convey message. Man may play with words but his body speaks the truth. Therefore a careful study of signals sent out by human body can tackle issues before they become problems.
Body movements of a person are guided by his thoughts and feelings. The nodding of head, blinking of eyes, waving of hands, shrugging of shoulders, etc. are all expressions of human thoughts and feelings. Body language also communicates status. For example a soldier standing before his army officer is in attention and tense his posture conveys subservience. The body postures of the officers (relaxed and at ease) reflects his higher status. Similarly superiors in a meeting appear strong and fearless.
The role of different parts of body in communication is given below :
1. Head : There is an old saying ‘Hold your head high’. It is a sign of honour, self respect and self confidence. A head bent low, on the other hand, show modesty, politeness and guilt. A stiffy, held or backwards drawn head indicates pride or naughtiness.
Nodding the head shows listener’s response to the speaker. Thus, the posture and movement, of head are very important in face-to-face communications.
2. Face : Face has been called the mirror of the mind because whatever a person feels deep inside is reflected on his face. Every facial muscle is an instrument of face-to-face communication. The lines of forehead, the eyebrows, the muscles Of checks, lips all speak louder than words. A great amount of regular practice is required to control feelings and adopt positive attitudes in all situations.
3. Eyes : Eyes communicate our deepest feelings. Therefore, eye contact is of great importance in face-to-face communication. Eyes adopt different positions in different situations. Fixed Eyes show Concentration, raised eyes indicate surprise or fear, smiling eyes reflect happiness. A long fixed eye Show interest whereas evasive eyes indicate lack Of interest or nervousness.
4. Gestures : Gestures refers to the movement of our arms, legs, hands, torso, etc. Arms spreads out convey the meaning of wide, shuffling legs indicate nervousness, on erect torso reflects intensity. Similarly, pounding of first on a table shows anger while a forefinger raised above the head shows ‘Number 1’,
5. Body Shape and Posture : Standing or siting erect, leaning forward and backward, stretching or bending sideways all convey meanings. A person can make positive or negative impression of himself or others through his body posture. Therefore, we should make efforts to ensure that our body does not send out wrong signals in interviews, meetings and informal interactions. It requires regular practice to ensure that our body talks positive.
Q. 9. Explain the following terms :
(a) Surroundings, (b) Time language.
Ans. (a) Surroundings : The physical environment around us speak their own non-verbal language. Surroundings consist of a large number of objects. Two important parts of surroundings are colour and layout.
(i) Colours : Colours have been used to convey meaning since time immemorial.
Different colours are associated with different attitudes behaviour patterns and cultural background. White is generally associated with peace and chastity, pink, red, yellow, green and blue represent cheerfulness and pleasant conditions. Black and grey are associated with sombremood and negative feelings. Right Choice of colours for clothing, home and office interiors, upholstery and decoration pieces is helpful in effective communication, Indifferences to choice of colour is a sign of poor cultural background.
(ii) Layout and Design : The space arrangement of an office, the furniture and its design, etc. are important in communication. A test fully decorated office create good impression. The layout and design of an office also projects the images of the organisation. Therefore, expert designers are employed to do up the interior designing of offices.
(b) Time Language : There is a saying “Time is money”. Under time language we send out signals indicating the importance of time to us. Time management has become a very important part of business management, Business enterprises employ several time saving devices in offices etc, All communications should be rightly timed to be effective.
Q. 10. What is space language? Describe various types of space language used in communication.
Ans. Space Language : Non-verbal signals which are mutually understood by the sender and the receiver originate from many sources. One such important source is the space -around us which communicates in its own way. Communication experts call this dimension of communication ‘Proxemics’. It is the study of the how we communicate with the space around us. Proxemics may also be called’ space language. The word ‘space’ here means the distance between the sender and receiver of the message in oral communication.
This distance called proximity can be stated as under.
Space language have following steps :
1. Intimate : Physical contact to 18 inches.
2. Personal : 18 inches to 4 feet.
3. Social : 4 to 12 feet.
4. Public : 12 feet to as far as one can see or hear.
1. Intimate Space Language : Here very close contact is maintained within the space Of 18 inches. It is the most suitable distance for use of body language because most of our body movements originate within this area. Only very special people like our family members, relatives and close friends enter this space. We often speak in wishpers or at a low pitch to them. With in this small circle, body language is used more than words. Handshakes, a pat on the back, eye contact, etc. are very commonly used in this space. Intimate space is very suitable for highly confidential talks and decision concerning sensitive matters.
2. personal Space Language : Personal space extends from 18 inches to 4 feets. Here we use the above closed circle Of intimacy around us. We have normal conversation with our close friends, colleagues and visitors Communication in this space is also largely personal in nature. But it is generally released or casual. We may, however, take some important decision in this circle.
3. Social Space Language : Social space extends from 4 feet to 12 feet. This space is used mostly for formal and official relationship. Most of the business communications take place within this area. communication in social space are dominated by reason and planning rather than by emotions and feelings. It is the most important spatial dimension in business communication.
4. Public Space Language : This larger area extends beyond 12 feet, Communication in this space is highly formal and objective. High pitch of voice is used so as to be heard by a much larger group. Public address system may have to be used in case the space extends as far as we can see. public announcement may have to be made on certain occasions. Election rallies are an example of public space language.
Q. 11. Explain the concept of seminar. What are its features? How will you arrange a successful seminar?
Explain the concept of seminar. Explain the steps involved in organizing a successful seminar.
Ans. Seminar : Seminar is an important tool of oral communication. It is one form of group communication in which different persons make a presentation or speech on a particular topic. This speech is then followed by questions and expert comments from the audience. Thus it is a combine form of speech group discussion, It is a kind of meeting at which people pool their knowledge, exchange their views and talk together to analyse information which is relevant to the topic set them. Seminar provides opportunity to listen experts in a particular field of knowledge. During seminar one person act as a chairman of the session and conducts the seminar by introducing the topic and the speaker. At the end of the session, he invites the audience to ask questions and ensures that the discussion follows in the light of them.
Characteristics of Seminar : The various characteristics of seminar are as follows :
1. In a seminar discussions are held only in small groups.
2. Topic of discussion is generally of high academic taste.
3. It is a gathering of experts in specific fields.
4. It is an oral form of business communication.
5. Various experts present their views and ideas to draw some conclusion or solution.
Conduct of Seminar : A seminar may continue for two or three days and be divided into a number of different session. The topic of every session is predecided and a discussion is held on that topic in that session. Each session presiders by a person who has complete knowledge of the topic known as chairperson. He invites the participants to present their papers. Participant present his views on the topic and tell’s every thing that he has to tell. After each paper chair-person invites questions and comments and in this way a discussion is initiated on the topic. While presenting the Paper, reader should read the main points in an order and concentrate on consistency.
Conclusion of Seminar : At the end, the chairman summarise the main points of the discussion and the conclusion reaches, if any. He has also to ‘evaluate and finally he should thank the member for their contribution and help in examining the problem.
The chairmans concluding remarks are meant to clarify the final decision and to create a sense of achievement in the group.
Q. 12. Give the guidelines for effective writing.
Ans. Guidelines for Effective Writing : For effective writing following points should be kept in mind :
1. Answer of Necessary Questions : For effective writing necessary questions should be answered properly. For example (a) Why to write (b) Whom to write (c) What to write (d) Medium of writing and (e) Where and when to write.
Answer of these questions is necessary for effective writing.
2. Use Familiar Words : For effective writing, simple and familiar words should be used in place of difficult and unfamiliar words. Simple words make the better understanding of the Written message.
3. Use Short Words In place of Long Expressions : Short words are preferable instead of long and trite words. For example in place of ‘enclosed herewith please find’ we will use the word ‘enclosed’ and in place of ‘with reference to’ word ‘refer’ should be used to make writing effective.
4. Use Strong Words : For effective writing, strong words should be used as they make an immediate impact on reader’s mind and the message becomes forceful.
5. Avoid Technical Words or Jargon : Jargon refers to the special language of a particular trade or profession. This language is easily understood by the members of that professional group but cannot be understood by the outsiders. Therefore, efforts should be made to minimize its use while communicating the persons outside their group.
6. Keep the Paragraph Short : A short paragraph is clear and more effective than a long one. The average length of a paragraph should generally be eight or nine lines. A paragraph should also contain unity. Unity can be achieved by writing a paragraph around a single topic or idea. The supporting details should also be filled for the topic.
7. Avoid Needless Information : Unnecessary informations should be avoided to make writing effective. The writer should keep in mind the needs of the reader rather than the information at his command.
8. Avoid Surplus Words : Very often we use words that add nothing to the meaning of the sentence. For example, “Three conditions should be fulfilled”, is better than “There are three conditions that should be full filed.”
9. Writing should be Practical and Logical : It is also be remembered that writing should be done for practical and logical values as none like to read impractical messages.
10. Make the Paragraph Move Forward : An effective paragraphs is one that moves forward through logically connected sentences. This movement is brought about by our own clarity Of thought, logical arrangement of ideas, smoothness in style, careful word choice and sentence structure and use of sentence connectors wherever needed.
11. Emphasise the Right Words : Proper emphasis should be given on the content Of a sentence. This requires logical thinking. The writer must be clear in his mind so as to know what he wants to convey and how.
Q. 13. Discuss the processes adopted in survey methods ? What are its advantages and disadvantages ?
Ans. Survey Methods : The survey method involves asking variety of questions to respondents Mostly the questions related to behavioural aspects like perception, attitude, awareness etc. These questions may be asked verbally or in writing. Nowadays computers are emerging strongly as a convenient tool to ask questions. The data collection can be structured or unstructured. Typically, the questioning is structured which means that in data collection, a formal questionnaire is prepared and the questions are asked in a prearranged order. The research is classified into direct or indirect, i.e. based on whether the true purpose is known to the respondent (if yes, the research is direct). Means to say a direct approach is non-disguised is that the purpose of the survey is disclosed to the respondent or is otherwise obvious to them. Typically the questionnaire involves questions which have fixed response and the respondents provide their responses by the mark making on any of the responses. The questionnaire may assume any of the other forms also.
The survey method has several advantages and disadvantages. Let us briefly discuss the advantages first.
Advantages of Survey Methods
1. The survey conducted through questionnaire is easy as it is very convenient and easy to administer the questionnaire.
2. Since, the responses are limited to the alternatives stated, the data collected can be assumed to be reliable.
3. The use of fixed response question reduces the variability in the results that may be caused by differences in interviewers.
4. Coding, analysis and interpretation of data are relatively simple.
Disadvantages of Survey Methods
1. Respondent may be unable or unwilling to provide the desired information (one reason for this is the fixed alternatives for the questions).
2. Respondents may be reluctant or unwilling to respond if the information requested is sensitive or personal.
3. For some questions, choosing fixed alternatives may be very cumbersome.
4. There can be large number of fixed alternatives which may pose confusion to respondent.
5. Wording question properly is not easy.